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Six to Eight Process Leads to Cell Membrane Fusion

   

Added on  2019-09-18

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1IMMUNOLOGY EXAM SECTION AIMMUNOLOGY EXAM – SECTION AName:
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2IMMUNOLOGY EXAM SECTION ASECTION ASolution 1. A. The main characteristics of antibodies encompass the response to the antigens in our body. The antibodies are referred to as immunoglobins too. The antibodies have the characteristic tobe bound with the cell membrane, and if this does not take place, the antibodies tend to remain free. The production of antibodies takes place with the B-lymphocytes along with the plasma cells. The mature cells of plasma are being produced which results in the peculiar characteristic linked to antibodies. The monoclonal antibody is characteristic to the single oneand leads to the production of B cell. This antibody only binds to the unique epitope. The isolation of B-cell is unique in the case of a monoclonal antibody. The Polyclonal antibody, on the other hand, is representative of a greater collection of the B cells. These antibodies willrecognize the epitopes linked to a similar antigen. The normal cells do not have the capacity to proliferate forever. In this case, the fusion needs to take place. The same is being done withthe immortal cancerous cells which are referred to as the myeloma cells and the process leadsto the yield of hybridoma cells (Dunand et al., 2016, pp. 812; Han et al., 2018, pp. 30; van de Donk, 2016, pp. 691). The cells are being placed in the medium which is of selective nature and does tend to allow the growing up of cells continuously (Ecker et al., 2015, pp. 11; Swanstrom et al., 2016, pp. 1124; van de Donk et al., 2016, pp. 694). The process is crucial as the larger quantities of production, that of the Monoclonal Antibodies takes place. Solution 1. B. The monoclonal antibody does start the generation process with the cells produced, that of the monoclonal antibody-producing cells (Dunand et al., 2016, pp. 812; Han et al., 2018, pp.
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3IMMUNOLOGY EXAM SECTION A30; van de Donk, 2016, pp. 691). These cells are referred to as hybridomas and can be obtained from the fusion taking the place of desired antibody-producing splenocytes along with myeloma cells.The cells are naturally being sourced from the animals. The most generic form of source considering animals is the mice (Dunand et al., 2016, pp. 812; Han et al., 2018, pp. 30; van deDonk, 2016, pp. 691). The cell fusion along with the larger number of clones are able to get screened and also being selected with the basis of antigen and this is the class pertaining to the immunoglobin and the antigen (Ecker et al., 2015, pp. 11; Swanstrom et al., 2016, pp. 1124; van de Donk et al., 2016, pp. 694). The process starts with the lining up of the cell lines, that are hybridoma and are uniquely being identified with each hit being well confirmed. The validation of such a hit also has to take place. The characteristic that is persistent with a variety of functional assays of downstream nature is significant (Dunand et al., 2016, pp. 812; Han et al., 2018, pp. 30; van de Donk, 2016, pp. 691). The hybridoma cell lines can well be identified, and the completion of this process leads to the next stage. This stage is of the clones being scaled up wherein additional downstream bioprocesses do take place. The process of production of monoclonal antibodies takes place with the inception of mice and isolation with respect to the splenocytes. The mice are being immunized with the antigen,and the process leads to the stage wherein the blood gets screened for the production of antigens.
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