(PDF) National culture dimensions

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1 IntroductionIn this article dimensions of national culture and cross-cultural purpose of dimension arediscussed. The article defines national culture and summarizing the singles dimension model,multiple dimension model, and historical- social models of national culture. An analysis is madeby applying these models in the context of management.2 Models of National Culture-A Management ReviewThis article composted of study of national culture and practice of local and internationalmanagement. In this article, the author describes the national culture and cross-cultural modelsand illustrates the single, multiple dimension models, historical social models of Nationalculture.3 National CulturesNational culture defines the collective mental programming of the people of any particularculture. Hofstede defined the national culture as people of their mental programming repeats thenational culture and mental programming makes the value, behaviors, perceptions, andcompetencies that describe the national culture.4.0 Cross-cultural aims of national modelsThe author describes the national culture as a documented view that is applied in other cultureand other countries. One country of culture may not be followed in another country. Accordingto (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars) apply the locally appropriate models and practicesmanagements of national culture. In this two implications BEST FIT, POLYCENTTRICITY thisdefines best fit the multinational and international organizations make their culture according to
their national culture whereas in polycednticity the culture used diversely the national andmultinationals organizations used their national culture as well the culture of the other countries.4.1 Single Dimension Culture:On this authors used three models to describe the single dimension culture.High and Low cultures:The people of the high context level are the information seeker it can share the information withtheir colleagues and friends commonly they gossip with their every problem among their friendswhereas the people of Low context are share with their friends and discuss with their friends butit can take the decision on the research base it can be work on research base and then go thedecision making.4.1.1 Mono-chromic and polychromic cultureThe polychromic people doing the many things at the same time there is no time managementsystem in their life's they don't take the time framework when they meet with opportunity it canbe done in the given article. The polychromic peoples are extrovert, talkative, work any hours,juggles facts, plays a many role, talks for hours, goes round all departments dislikes writing toomuch, unpunctual, changes the plans, seeks favors, doing the several things at the same time.Author takes the example of Indians, Arabs, and American people.The monochromic people are conservative these types of peoples are introvert, patients, quiet,punctual, makes the plans, job oriented, works within departments, sticks to plans, sticks totimetable, play a role within a team, focused on communications, follow correct procedures,follows systems, juggle fact, dominated by timetable and schedules, doing one things at the time,
gets information’s from the statics references books. The people of Germany, American, French,and Chile, Portuguese, sub-continents and some others have monochromic characteristics.4.1.2 Fukuyama’s also analysis of TrustFukuyama analyzes the relationship between the social capital, trust management, anddevelopment of an organization. Fukuyama results from their study that high trusts societymakes a flexible work place make their work diligently even in low organizations. Fukuyamacomment that the developed countries having nonprofit, Professional associations, and charitableinstitutions that developed a strong private economic institutions that of beyond the family. Itsuggests that most of the countries generate a strong social group people and state the tendencyto do this is less in China, Russia Latin catholic countries that’s are arranged in low trust.Fukuyama suggests the low trust societies having strong families but weak bound among thepeople low trust level among them and unrelated to another are leads to the family business andmanaged the already business. Fukuyama studied the catholic countries like Italy, France andSpain having strong family business sectors, a strong state sector, and between social group andorganizations. Fukuyama studied a French family business with professional management andthe role of state in developing a large scale and the state help the low private organizations due tolower trust among the French people and traditional difficulties among the people of groups andhabitual preferences based on face to face value. Fukuyama result that the people of French mayfind the difficult to solve the problems between themselves without references.4.2 Multiple Dimension CultureIn the given article author defines the multiple dimension culture through Hofstede’s modeldescribes that the effect of work environment and management categorized by variables that are
Power Distance is that the people having an unequal social and status sense how peoples anddifferent societies deal with it. Uncertainty Avoidance how the society deals with the future andits risk. Individualism is deals with the close relationship among the people and individualsproblems in organization and society as a whole, the other variable is Masculinity it deals withthe role of men and women and also describes the issues of sex among the society and the rolesof society that carries out.4.2.1Hofstede’s model more summarizedThe model proposed by Hofstede states that the national culture and values influence theorganizational environment and its management. The influence of culture on firm and itsenvironment is categorized into four variables;variablesPower distanceThis variable reflects the way people are dealt in a society according to their socialstatus.UncertaintyavoidanceThis reflects that to which extent a society copes with uncertainty.Masculinity-femininitywhich indicates the relative closeness of therelationship between one person and others. It anticipates fundamentalis sues about individual motivation and place (and the managementthereof), and about the organization and functioning of a society as awholeIndividualism-collectivismIt reflects the roles given to individuals of a society on the basis of their gender.4.2.2 Hampden- Turner & Trompenaar’s Analysis
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