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Exploring the Relationship between Music and Human Behavior

   

Added on  2019-09-20

14 Pages3668 Words262 Views
MusicHigher Education
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Running head: EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITY IntroductionRecently, various criticisms have been raised concerning the lack of attention to behavior among social and personality psychology (e.g., Funder, 2001; Hogan, 1998; Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003; Rozin, 2001). As an example, Funder (2001) stated that even though there is wealth of data about the structure of personality, the information of basic facts between personality and behavior remains sparse. In short, there are many important facets of everyday life that are worth taking scientific attention whereas many researchers have not been providing sufficient attention. However, Anderson, Henke, McLaughlin, Ripp & Tuffs (2000) stated “Just as there can be no music without learning, no education is complete without music” (p.2). Peoplelisten to music frequently (Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003), therefore conducting scientific research on music is laudable. Especially, in the aspect of enhancing academic performance using background music. A study by Perlovsky (2013) gives a strong support to the hypothesis that music helps overcoming stress due to cognitive dissonance, helps accumulating knowledge. The proposed study intends to address this issue to determine if music consistently improves academic performance. Positive effects of background musicWhy should music have a crucial impact on students’ academic improvement? To support the question stated, Sinex, Guzik, Li, & Henderson Sabes (2003)stated that music, an orderly arrangement of sound consisting of melody, harmony, rhythm, tone, and pitch, has been used to impact mental processes for centuries.Additionally, Chabris (1999) studies attributed to the “Mozart effect” appeared to demonstrate the exposure to the composer’s music can raise IQ 1
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EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITY scores by as much as 10%. However, when he re-analyzed 16 studies of the Mozart effect and found that their conclusions could not be supported. An explanation offered by Rauscher and Shaw (1998) stated that the Mozart effect only applies to a certain spatial-temporal task. Firstly, the findings collected from the previous research would require further investigation to examine whether or not the Mozart effect only affect spatial-temporal task. In addition, a reasonable alternative is provided by the arousal and mood hypothesis (Thompson, Schellenberg & Husain, 2001) which considers the link between listening to Mozart (classical music) and spatial-temporal abilities to be just one example of a pleasant stimulus that can improve a perceiver’s emotional state, which can, in turn, affect cognitive performance (Schellenberg, 2005). Secondly,the results of the present study would result in a greater understanding on how to determine a better way to use music for academic improvement in student learning process. Negative effects of background musicResearch by Salame and Baddeley (1989) has shown music to be disruptive to short term memory performance. More specifically they examined the effect of instrumental and vocal music on the immediate serial recall of sequences of nine visually presented digits (Salame, 1989). However, responses to musical stimuli vary and are subject to previous experience and sociocultural influences (Paretz, 2006) as personality background may have a major influence onthe effect of musical stimuli. Additionally, there are also other external factors should be taken into account such as music preferences, tempo and loudness. As an example, a study done by Wofe (1983) showed that the number of correct response in a reading test depended on the amplitude of music. In relation to Wofe (1983) findings, another previous study conducted by Tze and Chou (2010) aimed to compare classical and hip hop music to determine which type of background music creates the most amount of interference and which type of background music 2
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EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITY creates the least amount of interference. The study found that playing hip-hop music in the background had the most distracting effect on the performance of a reading comprehension test compared to no music or classical music, the aspect of tempo and loudness in the background music presented however, might be an indication of the low result of hip-hop music in reading tasks. Additionally, another factor that needs to be taken into account is the personality of the individual processing the music (Eysenck, 1952; 1967; 1982). Eysenck developed a very influential model of personality. North and Hargreaves (1999) showed that individuals have well-defined impressions of the psychological characteristics of people who listen to certain styles of music (i.e., chart-pop, indie-pop, and classical). Therefore, the personality background of the participants can have a major influence on the outcome which is what is the present study is aiming to investigate. Furnham & Allas, (1996); Furnham & Bradley, (1997) have tested different background music for extroverts and introverts depending on the complexity of the music. Their results indicated that extroverts scored significantly higher with complex music while introverts found this more distracting and scored higher when being exposed to simple music. Furthermore, the limitations of this study have not been clearly specified as to what type of complex and simple music had been tested.Does our personality predict music preference and perhaps more importantly how we process and attend different types of music and how distracting the music is? to conclude the empirical explanation on choosing hip-hop and classical music in addition to the independent variable in the proposed study, Rentfrow & Gosling’ (2003) examined music preferences based on personality types using Short Test of Music Preference (STOMP) and it was conclusively shown that hip-hop music was categorized in the energetic and rhythmic division, hence, it has 3
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EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITY positive correlation with extraversion personality. In addition, North et al., (2010) conducted a survey which involved over 36,000 people from all around the world.The outcome was that classical music fans are more introverted, are at ease with themselves and the world around them. Introvert individuals are creative with good self-esteem (Terms, 2016). An alternate theorysuggests that music may simply help people focus their attention and ignore noise or other novel distractions in the environment (Stratton, Valeria & Annette, 1984) and therefore this study aiming to support the theory whereas classical and hip hop music could have positive impact on student’ concentration depending on personality types. However, no previous study has compared the vocal-instrumental in classical and hip-hop music on concentration tasks based on student’ personality types, which could potentially improve their academic performance if the present study could conclusively have shown whether or not the types of music mentioned wouldhave a positive effect on concentration level. Accordingly, several of previous studies (e.g Salame & Baddeley, 1989; Tze & Chou, 2010) have repeatedly showed negative effect of classical and hip-hop music in a various cognitive tasks such as reading comprehension and memory recall tasks. Although it could be explained by greater concentration; concentrate more; understand more; high test score. In addition, there may be differences in the effect of music on cognitive performance such as verbal working memory, depending on the type of music being played, particularly the difference between effects of vocal and instrumental music (Newman, Hunt & Rhodes, 1966; as cited in Furnham & Bradley, 1999).Therefore, by assessing the issues in the previous research, the present study should be able to determine which of the vocal or instrumental in classical and hip-hop music would affect concentration more effectively.In conclusion, a fundamental cognitive function of music could be its facilitation of accumulating knowledge. The number of previous research results therefore might be significant 4
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