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Running head: EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITYIntroductionRecently, various criticisms have been raised concerning the lack of attention tobehavior among social and personality psychology (e.g., Funder, 2001; Hogan, 1998;Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003; Rozin, 2001). As an example, Funder (2001) stated that even thoughthere is wealth of data about the structure of personality, the information of basic facts betweenpersonality and behavior remains sparse. In short, there are many important facets of everydaylife that are worth taking scientific attention whereas many researchers have not been providingsufficient attention. However, Anderson, Henke, McLaughlin, Ripp & Tuffs (2000) stated “Justas there can be no music without learning, no education is complete without music” (p.2). Peoplelisten to music frequently (Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003), therefore conducting scientific researchon music is laudable. Especially, in the aspect of enhancing academic performance usingbackground music. A study by Perlovsky (2013) gives a strong support to the hypothesis thatmusic helps overcoming stress due to cognitive dissonance, helps accumulating knowledge. Theproposed study intends to address this issue to determine if music consistently improvesacademic performance.Positive effects of background musicWhy should music have a crucial impact on students’ academic improvement? Tosupport the question stated,Sinex, Guzik, Li, & Henderson Sabes (2003)stated that music, anorderly arrangement of sound consisting of melody, harmony, rhythm, tone, and pitch, has beenused to impact mental processes for centuries.Additionally, Chabris (1999) studies attributed tothe “Mozart effect” appeared to demonstrate the exposure to the composer’s music can raise IQ1
EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITYscores by as much as 10%. However, when he re-analyzed 16 studies of the Mozart effect andfound that their conclusions could not be supported. An explanation offered by Rauscher andShaw (1998) stated that the Mozart effect only applies to a certainspatial-temporaltask. Firstly,the findings collected from the previous research would require further investigation to examinewhether or not the Mozart effect only affect spatial-temporal task. In addition, a reasonablealternative is provided by the arousal and mood hypothesis (Thompson, Schellenberg & Husain,2001) which considers the link between listening to Mozart (classical music) and spatial-temporal abilities to be just one example of a pleasant stimulus that can improve a perceiver’semotional state, which can, in turn, affect cognitive performance (Schellenberg, 2005). Secondly,the results of the present study would result in a greater understanding on how to determine abetter way to use music for academic improvement in student learning process.Negative effects of background musicResearch by Salame and Baddeley (1989) has shown music to be disruptive to short termmemory performance. More specifically they examined the effect of instrumental and vocalmusic on the immediate serial recall of sequences of nine visually presented digits (Salame,1989). However, responses to musical stimuli vary and are subject to previous experience andsociocultural influences (Paretz, 2006) as personality background may have a major influence onthe effect of musical stimuli. Additionally, there are also other external factors should be takeninto account such as music preferences, tempo and loudness. As an example, a study done byWofe (1983) showed that the number of correct response in a reading test depended on theamplitude of music. In relation to Wofe (1983) findings, another previous study conducted byTze and Chou (2010) aimed to compare classical and hip hop music to determine which type ofbackground music creates the most amount of interference and which type of background music2
EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITYcreates the least amount of interference. The study found that playing hip-hop music in thebackground had the most distracting effect on the performance of a reading comprehension testcompared to no music or classical music, the aspect of tempo and loudness in the backgroundmusic presented however, might be an indication of the low result of hip-hop music in readingtasks.Additionally, another factor that needs to be taken into account is the personality of theindividual processing the music (Eysenck, 1952; 1967; 1982). Eysenck developed a veryinfluential model of personality.North and Hargreaves (1999) showed that individuals havewell-defined impressions of the psychological characteristics of people who listen to certainstyles of music (i.e., chart-pop, indie-pop, and classical).Therefore, the personality backgroundof the participants can have a major influence on the outcome which is what is the present studyis aiming to investigate. Furnham & Allas, (1996); Furnham & Bradley, (1997) have testeddifferent background music for extroverts and introverts depending on the complexity of themusic. Their results indicated that extroverts scored significantly higher with complex musicwhile introverts found this more distracting and scored higher when being exposed to simplemusic. Furthermore, the limitations of this study have not been clearly specified as to what typeof complex and simple music had been tested.Does our personality predict music preference and perhaps more importantly how weprocess and attend different types of music and how distracting the music is? to conclude theempirical explanation on choosing hip-hop and classical music in addition to the independentvariable in the proposed study, Rentfrow & Gosling’ (2003) examined music preferences basedon personality types using Short Test of Music Preference (STOMP) and it was conclusivelyshown that hip-hop music was categorized in the energetic and rhythmic division, hence, it has3
EFFECT OF MUSIC ON EXTROVERT-INTROVERT PERSONALITYpositive correlation with extraversion personality. In addition, North et al.,(2010) conducted asurvey which involved over 36,000 people from all around the world.The outcome was thatclassical music fans are more introverted, are at ease with themselves and the world aroundthem. Introvert individuals are creative with good self-esteem (Terms, 2016).An alternate theorysuggests that music may simply help people focus their attention and ignore noise or other noveldistractions in the environment (Stratton, Valeria & Annette, 1984) and therefore this studyaiming to support the theory whereas classical and hip hop music could have positive impact onstudent’ concentration depending on personality types. However, no previous study hascompared the vocal-instrumental in classical and hip-hop music on concentration tasks based onstudent’ personality types, which could potentially improve their academic performance if thepresent study could conclusively have shown whether or not the types of music mentioned wouldhave a positive effect on concentration level. Accordingly, several of previous studies (e.gSalame & Baddeley, 1989; Tze & Chou, 2010)have repeatedly showed negative effect ofclassical and hip-hop music in a various cognitive tasks such as reading comprehension andmemory recall tasks. Although it could be explained by greater concentration; concentrate more;understand more; high test score. In addition, there may be differences in the effect of music oncognitive performance such as verbal working memory, depending on the type of music beingplayed, particularly the difference between effects of vocal and instrumental music(Newman,Hunt & Rhodes, 1966; as cited in Furnham & Bradley, 1999).Therefore, by assessing the issuesin the previous research, the present study should be able to determine which of the vocal orinstrumental in classical and hip-hop music would affect concentration more effectively.In conclusion, a fundamental cognitive function of music could be its facilitation ofaccumulating knowledge. The number of previous research results therefore might be significant4
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