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2AbstractThis study explores the theory of whether we are more accurate at recognisingnames or occupations of a person from just looking at their face. With their facerecognition theory in 1986, Bruce and Young suggested that we can recall thename, occupation, and other sorts of information about a familiar person whenlooking at their face. To this end, students were recruited if they studiedPsychology at University of Bedfordshire Luton campus. The study data wascollated over three years. They all were on the MSc psychology conversionprogram (N=190). The participants consisted of 27 male (14.2%), 160 female(84.2%) and three participants had their gender missing. Participants were agedbetween 19 and 57 years (M = 27.5, SD = 8.89). Participants were asked tocomplete a survey using the Qualtrics survey software. The survey consisted ofan exposure and test phase. The exposure phase consisted of timed pictureslides of 30 faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database withname and occupation attached. All single faces had a unique name andoccupation. The test phase had ten unchanged slides from the exposure phase,ten with different names and ten with different occupations. Participants wereasked to recall and respond by choosing between if there was no change, achange in name or a change in occupation. A paired-samples t-test indicated thatscores were significantly higher for those that identified a change in occupationsubscale (M= 7.46, SD= 2.47) than for the subscale of those who identified achange in name (M= 4.47, SD= 4.47),t(189)=-14.69,p< .001,d= 1.29.
3Face Recognition and Bruce & Young 1986 theoretical frameworkFace recognition is the ability to identify an individual by looking at theirface. Recognising a face provides a person's identity and the essentialinformation for social interaction such as name, age, gender, occupation, mood,and emotions. Due to the complexity of face recognition, extensive research hasbeen done to gain a better understanding.(Goldstein & James, 1983)stated that"The face is the most important visual stimulus in our lives probably from the firstfew hours after birth, definitely after the first few weeks". The ability to recognisefaces is essential in every person's life differs significantly from objectrecognition(Bruce & Young, 1986).Bruce and Young (1986) theoretical framework for face recognition hasbeen the most influential. The framework suggests that eight components makeup the face recognition process.These components are:Structural encoding: this is when the person can observe, recall anotherperson and assign them names or attributes.Expression analysis: this process allows the person to pick on emotionalcues from facial expression.Facial speech analysis: it uses facial motions to assist in speechperception.Direct visual processing is the ability of the processing any informationreceived through the eyes.
4Face recognition nodes: the process of using structural features to identifya person.Person identity nodes: these provide stored information of individuals suchas occupation and interests.Name generation is the process of recollecting or assigning an individual'sname.Cognitive system: this holds additional information and assigns whichother components receive attention.The Bruce and Young framework suggest that the processes of identifyingfamiliar and unfamiliar faces involve different components. Familiar facerecognition involves structural encoding, face recognition units, person identitynodes and name recognition. On the other hand, unfamiliar face recognitioninvolves structural encoding, expression analysis, facial speech analysis, anddirect visual processing(Severin et al., 2005).Bruce and Young's model focused more on familiar faces. Bruce and Young(1986) proposed that only the appropriate person identity node would giveaccess when generating a name. On the assumption that individuals have nobrain damage, they should put names to faces without knowing anything elseabout the other person. However, some patients demonstrated a different patterndisproving that theory. They also proposed that name recall was morechallenging to achieve than other information like an occupation. Names areabstract and usually arbitrary than other types of identity-specific informationsuch as occupation, hobbies and other things. Researchers have also conducted