2AbstractThis study explores the theory of whether we are more accurate at recognising names or occupations of a person from just looking at their face. With their face recognition theory in 1986, Bruce and Young suggested that we can recall the name, occupation, and other sorts of information about a familiar person when looking at their face. To this end, students were recruited if they studied Psychology at University of Bedfordshire Luton campus. The study data was collated over three years. They all were on the MSc psychology conversion program (N=190). The participants consisted of 27 male (14.2%), 160 female (84.2%) and three participants had their gender missing. Participants were aged between 19 and 57 years (M = 27.5, SD = 8.89). Participants were asked to complete a survey using the Qualtrics survey software. The survey consisted of an exposure and test phase. The exposure phase consisted of timed picture slides of 30 faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database with name and occupation attached. All single faces had a unique name and occupation. The test phase had ten unchanged slides from the exposure phase, ten with different names and ten with different occupations. Participants were asked to recall and respond by choosing between if there was no change, a change in name or a change in occupation. A paired-samples t-test indicated thatscores were significantly higher for those that identified a change in occupation subscale (M = 7.46, SD = 2.47) than for the subscale of those who identified a change in name (M = 4.47, SD = 4.47),t(189) = -14.69, p < .001, d = 1.29.
3Face Recognition and Bruce & Young 1986 theoretical framework Face recognition is the ability to identify an individual by looking at their face. Recognising a face provides a person's identity and the essential information for social interaction such as name, age, gender, occupation, mood, and emotions. Due to the complexity of face recognition, extensive research has been done to gain a better understanding. (Goldstein & James, 1983) stated that "The face is the most important visual stimulus in our lives probably from the first few hours after birth, definitely after the first few weeks". The ability to recognise faces is essential in every person's life differs significantly from object recognition(Bruce & Young, 1986). Bruce and Young (1986) theoretical framework for face recognition has been the most influential. The framework suggests that eight components make up the face recognition process. These components are: Structural encoding: this is when the person can observe, recall another person and assign them names or attributes. Expression analysis: this process allows the person to pick on emotional cues from facial expression.Facial speech analysis: it uses facial motions to assist in speech perception.Direct visual processing is the ability of the processing any information received through the eyes.
4Face recognition nodes: the process of using structural features to identifya person.Person identity nodes: these provide stored information of individuals suchas occupation and interests.Name generation is the process of recollecting or assigning an individual'sname.Cognitive system: this holds additional information and assigns which other components receive attention. The Bruce and Young framework suggest that the processes of identifying familiar and unfamiliar faces involve different components. Familiar face recognition involves structural encoding, face recognition units, person identity nodes and name recognition. On the other hand, unfamiliar face recognition involves structural encoding, expression analysis, facial speech analysis, and direct visual processing (Severin et al., 2005). Bruce and Young's model focused more on familiar faces. Bruce and Young (1986) proposed that only the appropriate person identity node would give access when generating a name. On the assumption that individuals have no brain damage, they should put names to faces without knowing anything else about the other person. However, some patients demonstrated a different patterndisproving that theory. They also proposed that name recall was more challenging to achieve than other information like an occupation. Names are abstract and usually arbitrary than other types of identity-specific information such as occupation, hobbies and other things. Researchers have also conducted