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py7015 psychology research exercises pdf

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Running head: PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
STUDENT ID:
[Pick the date]
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PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
ContentsWeek 1: Quantitative methods.........................................................................................................................3
Week 2 - Data description with SPSS..............................................................................................................5
Exercise 1: Data Description........................................................................................................................5
Week 3: Reporting Quantitative Research........................................................................................................9
Week 4: Research Design 2............................................................................................................................16
Methods and Tools.....................................................................................................................................16
Multiple Choice Questions – Methods and ToolsPlease.................................................................................16
References......................................................................................................................................................23
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PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
Week 1: Quantitative methods
Usingonesentence per goal,briefly describethe four goals of science.
The description of phenomena of interest, of observable behaviour methodically and the records of
the results. The explanation of what causes these phenomena, this behaviour, and sometimes the
suggestion of a theory. Making prediction for our results, which often are built from theories.
Controlling or affecting the phenomenon of interest, attitudes and behaviour. (Heath, 2017).
Word count: 55
Statethreeways in which you could modify previously published research to create a 'new' research
idea.
You can vary an independent variable or measure the variable of interest in a different way than
previous researchers. Extend the external validity, the ability of generalising results of a research to
other situations and to other people. (Heath, 2017)
Word Count: 40 words
Name the four levels (scales) of measurement and give an example of each (make sure that your
example is described in sufficient detail to demonstrate that it belongs to the level of measurement
that you have used it to illustrate (for example, age could be measured in a variety of different
ways, so giving age as your example would be insufficient).
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.
An example of nominal scale is gender, which has two or more labeled categories: Male, Female,
Transgender. These categories are just named, without having any kind of natural order or numeric
value.
An example of ordinal scale is satisfaction, which is a non-numeric concept and has named and
ordered variables. The distance between variables is not necessarily equal, it can’t be calculated and
known and the zero point is chosen arbitrarily.
An example of interval scale is temperature, because the difference between each value is equal.
The interval between 10 and 20 degrees is the same as the interval between 40 and 50 degrees, but a
temperature of 100 degrees is not twice as hot as 50 degrees.
An example of ratio scale is weight. A ratio scale has all the qualities of an interval scale but has an
absolute zero. The useful point about having an absolute zero is that we can form ratios using such
scales, so a weight of 10 grams is twice a weight of 5 grams.
Word count: 175 words
Describe or create a table or graphic to show the difference between reliability and validity in terms
of measurement of constructs in psychology. You may use note form rather than full sentences.
(max 80 words)
ReliabilityValidity
It is the extend to which a research yields a
consistent outcome when the researcher does
measurements many times according to
Refers to the degree to which the instrument
the researcher uses in establishing measures
measures what the researcher intends it to
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PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, (2014)measure.
It does not require a valid instrument to
measure.
The researcher always considers the
reliability
of the instrument.
It is mainly used in ontology which refers to
the study of nature of human beings.
It is mainly applied in epistemology which
refers to the part of philosophy that aims at
acquiring knowledge.
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PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
Week 2 - Data description with SPSS
Exercise 1: Data Description
(Taken from Dancey and Reidy (2017) Chapter 3):
1) The Independent Variable (IV) in the given study is the type of lighting that is used in the
office which is altered by the researcher.
2) The Dependent Variable (DV) in the given study is the number of daily errors made by the
inputters.
3) For the given data, the box plot obtained using SPSS is indicated as follows.
a) The given data is clearly not normally distributed which is apparent from the box plot is
not symmetric. It is evident from the box plot that the difference between Q2-Q1 is not equal
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PY7015 PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH EXERCISES
to Q3 –Q2. Also, the maximum value is significantly greater owing to which there is
presence of positive skew as indicated from the box plot (Flick, 2015).
b) From the box plot above, it is evident that there are five outliers in the given data as
indicated by circles and asterisk, so the outliers are from scores 3, 4, 5, 13 and 14.
c) The mean and standard deviation of the given data is indicated as follows:
Descriptive Statistics
NMean
Error2021.40
Valid N
(listwise)
20
Descriptive Statistics
NStd.
Deviation
Error206.61
Valid N
(listwise)
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Exercise 2: Data Description
(Taken from Dancey and Reidy (2017) Chapter 3)
1) The IV in this study is if the students took or not hallucinogenic drugs while they were
attending Dr Boerings lectures.
2) The DV in this study is the marks obtained by students in the exam at the end of the term
since the marks are supposed to be dependent on the decision taken by the students to
consume or avoid consumption of hallucinogenic drug.
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