(solved) Assignment on Epidemiology

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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1Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGYEpidemiologyName of student:Name of university:Author note:
2EPIDEMIOLOGYBotulism is a rare but serious illness caused by a toxin that causes severe morbidityand even mortality. Botulism has drawn attention in the recent past as a potential tool forbioterrorism that aims to cause mass mortality when applied on a large scale (Jansen et al.,2014). The present paper discusses botulism and describes the agents of the disease, the waysin which it might be used for bioterrorism and examples of terrorist events using thisparticular agent. Further, the implications for advance practice nurse APRN practice ishighlighted that can be applied for encountering an individual or community affected by thisdisease. In addition, emergency and longer-term concerns along with recommendedinterventions are also pointed out.The causative agent of Botulism in the toxin made by Clostridium botulinum andsometimesClostridium butyricumandClostridium baratiibacteria. These bacteria arepresent in a number of sources; however, they are not common to cause disease conditions.Under certain circumstances, the spores of the bacteria grow and secrete toxins that are lethal.The toxin acts in the body by attacking the nerves, thereby making the muscles weak.Muscles that are responsible for controlling the mouth, face, throat and eyes are mainlyaffected. Botulism also weakens the muscles involved in breathing. As a result, the individualsuffers difficulty in breathing and might eventually die (cdc.gov, 2017).Botulism and bioterrorism have been linked by a rich pool of literature in the recentfew years as botulism toxin is a potential biological agent for destruction (Jansen et al.,2014). After the 9/11 attack in the US, the possibility of using biological agents by terroristshave been in prominence. The toxin had always been on the list of important bioweaponcandidate agents. The reason for this is the high levels of toxicity that it presents. Thebioterrorists find the toxin agent convenient to use since the bacteria can be grown in an easymanner. In addition, the toxin can be produced in large quantities rapidly. This is why it is asignificant candidate for the bioterrorist's arsenal. As opined by Adler and Franz (2016) the
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