Perceived Effects of Memory Techniques on the Amount of Words Recalled

Added on -2019-09-19

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7006313Perceived Effects ofMemory Techniqueson the Amount ofWords Recalled1
7006313Abstract:The following research report attempted to compare the Method of Loci to a standard rehearsal technique. The Method of Loci is a type of memory palace, involving a familiar route and replacing words with images in that loci. The standard rehearsal technique is simply remembering material by using repetition. The hypothesis is simply that; participants are likely to recall more words, when using the Method of Loci, compared to the standard rehearsal technique. A between-group experimental design was used. The sample consisted of two hundred and twenty Psychology students from Coventry University. There were 176 females and 80 males. The mean age in years was 25.86. The findings highlighted that the Method of Loci was more successful than the standard rehearsal technique. The findings reveal that the Method of Loci can be a useful tool to use in the real-life setting. It can be incorporated into the educational context, which can be used as a revision method to help remember information.2
7006313Perceived Effects of Memory Techniques on the Amount of Words RecalledThe working memory refers to a brain system, which provides temporary storage of information necessary for cognitive tasks, such as; learning, language comprehension and reasoning (Baddeley, 1992). The main focus area in this report, is based on the mnemonic technique of loci. There are three phases to the method of loci, which successfully allow the individual to visualize the loci pathway as well as the items, which are placed in the different distinct locations (Kronesien & Makerud, 2017). This method is considered important as the nature of it rewinds all the way back to the Greek and Roman periods, where it was considered one of the oldest and most famous memorization techniques. It is still widely usedtoday, most commonly, when trying to recite a list of items.The application of the loci method involves first selecting a series of loci along a familiar pathway, this could be your house for example. This would then need to be memorised. An image would have to be pictured to symbolise each word. Thus, the images of the items would be in the selected loci. During the recall phase, the images, which symbolise a word, would be recalled when retracing the loci pathway (Moe & Beni, 2005). This technique can almost be described as a memory palace, which is an imaginary location in an individual’s mind, storing mnemonic images. The journey takes you through various locations you visit ina sequential order. The discovery of this was by Simonides of Ceos in 477 BC (Qureshi et al.,2014). The effectiveness of this method is apparent when the stimuli remembered is presented orally, rather than in a written format (Kronesien & Makerud, 2017).The method of loci is used to enhance recall through distinctive encoding. It therefore relies on encoding information by using sequential loci and mental images. Distinctive encoding is enhanced through unique cues of both images and location (Bass & Oswald, 2014). 3
7006313Roediger (1980) found that four mnemonic groups recalled a 20-word list better than the control group. However, the method of loci and the peg word system were considered to be more effective when the order of words remembered was important. Standard rehearsal is a basic method which is used to memorise materials with the help of repetition. Ahour & Berenji (2015) observed the effects of using rehearsal methods in comparison with the method of loci. The findings indicate that learners using the loci method were more successful in recalling words than learners applying rehearsal methods. These results have been consistent with past research as it has been found that the loci method improves and enhances vocabulary learning and retention (Moe & De Beni, 2005). Craik & Lockhart (1972) invented the Levels of Processing theory. They argued that stimulusinformation is processed at multiple levels, depending on characteristics, attention and meaningfulness. Thus, new information will not have to enter in a sequential order. In addition to this, information does not have to pass through a prescribed channel. If information processing increases, then the amount an individual will remember, increases accordingly. For example, information involving visual images or knowledge which is knownwill be processed quicker. (Lutz & Huitt, 2003). Shallow processing results to a fragile memory, leading to an increase chance of forgetting information. Deep processing, on the other hand, leads to a higher chance of remembering. Craik & Tulving (1975) observed the difference between deep and shallow processing. Results showed that participants recalled more words semantically, than phonemically. The theory itself has useful application as the use of deeper processing can increase memory recall. This is evident in the method of loci, when trying to memorise a list of items.4

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