49004 Systems Engineering for Managers

Added on -2020-02-23

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Individual Assignment| Anushree Mistry
Student ID: 12345678
Individual Assignment on Climate Change
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Individual Assignment| Anushree Mistry
Student ID: 12345678
Climate Change
The climate change is a term used to denote the change in statistical distribution on
patterns of weather when the change under consideration lasts for a long duration such as a
decade to million years. The change in climate may also denote to the alteration in the
average conditions of weather or the variation of time of the weather within a given period.
The change in climate is caused by many factors such as plate tectonics, biotic factors,
volcanic eruptions, and solar radiations from the earth. There are also some activities of
humans which are known to be the major cause of the change in climate, normally denoted as
global warming (David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 169).
Causes of Climate Change
The level at which energy is being received from the sun and the level at which the
same energy is being lost to space is what determines the earth’s climate and temperature
equilibrium. The factors which determine the climate of a place are communing know as
climate forcings, these factors include the change in radiations of solar, change in the orbit of
the earth, change in albedo, variations in the concentration of greenhouse gases, and
continental drift and mountain-building (Lovejoy, 2014, p. 215).
These factors causing the climate change can either respond slowly in reaction to
forcings of climate or respond faster to the climate forcings. These factors which will respond
slowly include ice caps and oceans. The mechanisms of forcing may either be external or
internal. The internal mechanism of forcing are those processes which are natural within the
system of climate itself such as the circulation of thermohaline. The external mechanisms of
forcing may either be anthropogenic or natural. The anthropogenic factors include the rise in
emissions of dust and greenhouse gases while the natural factors include volcanic eruptions,
the orbit of the earth, and the variations in the solar output (Lovejoy, 2014, p. 247).
Individual Assignment| Anushree Mistry
Student ID: 12345678
The Mechanisms of Internal Forcings
The five components of the climate change of the earth have been defined to include
lithosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and hydrosphere which are restricted to the sediments,
soil, and rocks of the surface, and biosphere.
Variability in Ocean-atmosphere: the atmosphere and ocean may function together in
generating the variability in internal climate spontaneously which may continue for many
decades. These variabilities include the oscillation of the Atlantic multidecadal and the
oscillation of Pacific decadal, this changes may affect the earth average temperature of the
surface through heat redistribution between the atmosphere and the deep ocean hence leading
to the alteration distribution of water vapour, cloud and sea ice which may affect the total
budget of energy of the globe (David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 158).
Life: the general life affects the change in climate through its role in the water and carbon
cycles and through many mechanisms such as weathering, albedo, cloud formation and
evapotranspiration. The process of glaciation which occurred 2.5billion years ago caused by
the development of oxygenic photosynthesis leading to the depletion of greenhouse gases
such as carbon dioxide and an introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere. The process of
global cooling which occurred 40 million years ago was caused by the expansion of
ecosystem’s green grazers (David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 174).
The Mechanism of external forcings.
Variations in the orbit: a slight change in the orbit of the earth may result in the variation in
the distribution of seasons of sunlight reaching the surface of the earth and its spreading
across the earth. It has been proved that there is less variation in the yearly normal sunlight
but there may be huge variation in the seasonal and geographic distribution. The three

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