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Individual Assignment|Anushree Mistry Student ID: 12345678 Individual Assignment on Climate Change Name Institutional affiliation
Individual Assignment|Anushree Mistry Student ID: 12345678 Climate Change The climate change is a term used to denote the change in statistical distribution on patterns of weather when the change under consideration lasts for a long duration such as a decade to million years. The change in climate may also denote to the alteration in the average conditions of weather or the variation of time of the weather within a given period. The change in climate is caused by many factors such as plate tectonics, biotic factors, volcanic eruptions, and solar radiations from the earth. There are also some activities of humans which are known to be the major cause of the change in climate, normally denoted as global warming(David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 169). Causes of Climate Change The level at which energy is being received from the sun and the level at which the same energy is being lost to space is what determines the earth’s climate and temperature equilibrium. The factors which determine the climate of a place are communing know as climate forcings, these factors include the change in radiations of solar, change in the orbit of the earth, change in albedo, variations in the concentration of greenhouse gases, and continental drift and mountain-building(Lovejoy, 2014, p. 215). These factors causing the climate change can either respond slowly in reaction to forcings of climate or respond faster to the climate forcings. These factors which will respond slowly include ice caps and oceans. The mechanisms of forcing may either be external or internal. The internal mechanism of forcing are those processes which are natural within the system of climate itself such as the circulation of thermohaline. The external mechanisms of forcing may either be anthropogenic or natural. The anthropogenic factors include the rise in emissions of dust and greenhouse gases while the natural factors include volcanic eruptions, the orbit of the earth, and the variations in the solar output(Lovejoy, 2014, p. 247).
Individual Assignment|Anushree Mistry Student ID: 12345678 The Mechanisms of Internal Forcings The five components of the climate change of the earth have been defined to include lithosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and hydrosphere which are restricted to the sediments, soil, and rocks of the surface, and biosphere. Variability in Ocean-atmosphere: the atmosphere and ocean may function together in generating the variability in internal climate spontaneously which may continue for many decades. These variabilities include the oscillation of the Atlantic multidecadal and the oscillation of Pacific decadal, this changes may affect the earth average temperature of the surface through heat redistribution between the atmosphere and the deep ocean hence leading to the alteration distribution of water vapour, cloud and sea ice which may affect the total budget of energy of the globe(David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 158). Life: the general life affects the change in climate through its role in the water and carbon cycles and through many mechanisms such as weathering, albedo, cloud formation and evapotranspiration. The process of glaciation which occurred 2.5billion years ago caused by the development of oxygenic photosynthesis leading to the depletion of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and an introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere. The process of global cooling which occurred 40 million years ago was caused by the expansion of ecosystem’s green grazers(David Leonard Downie, 2014, p. 174). The Mechanism of external forcings. Variations in the orbit: a slight change in the orbit of the earth may result in the variation in the distribution of seasons of sunlight reaching the surface of the earth and its spreading across the earth. It has been proved that there is less variation in the yearly normal sunlight but there may be huge variation in the seasonal and geographic distribution. The three
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