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2CHAPTER - 1INTRODUCTIONWind energy is one of the most reliable and abundant sources of renewable energy on thisplanet. The humankind has used it for centuries as there are estimates that people were using thistype of energy as far as 4,000 years ago. In the year 1700, it was employed by the king ofBabylon for irrigation purposes (Ackermann & Kuwahata, 2013). The wind was also forgrinding grain by several farmers. It is also surprising to note that one of the earliest windmillshad the vertical axis of rotation. The people use braided mats or sails for rotating these windmillsacross the vertical axis. These windmills had an operational advantage as they were independentof the direction of the wind.History of Wind PowerThe wind power was initially utilized by humans in the form of irrigation pumping, sailboatsand garn milling. The history of wind power can easily be tracked back to the ancient 6,000years ago. The sails, ships and sailboats were used on the Nile River though its water, in Egypt.The earliest known use of wind power was represented by the sailboats. Although as per today’sstandard, it is considered to be a rudimentary use of wind but the technology impacted thedevelopment of the current sail-type windmills (Hansen, M. O., 2015). The first documentedproof of the existence of such mills dates back to 12th century. However, the ability to study thewind power across the horizontal axis was the first to measure in the 20th century (Kuwahataet.al, 2013).There are two types of wind turbines. One is built with high speed and is intended to generateelectricity whereas the other one is built for low wind speeds (Wahab et al. 2008). The major
3components of Wind turbines include a rotor with a set of blades with a rotor hub which is seento deflect the airflow by creating a force on the blades. Due to this, a torque is produced on theshaft and the rotor is seen to rotate around the horizontal axis attached with a generator and agearbox. All this is present inside the nacelle present with other important electrical parts withthe tower end. Electricity is generated moving down from the tower to the transformer which isthen converted from voltage (usually 700V, 33000V for countrywide grid, 240 V for the personaluse). The core windmills are termed as horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the verticalaxis wind turbine (VAWT). The windmills using the horizontal axis of rotation are relativelynew as compared to vertical axis ones.United States and Wind PowerDue to increasing high-energy costs, the government and the people are becoming highlyconcerned towards global warming, pollution and feel financially strapped at the same time(Bollen, Hers & Zwaan, 2010). With around 30 percent of the total world reserves, the UnitedStates have a vast coal supply (Hook & Aleklett, 2010). The annual production of United Statesis almost twice as compared to India and lacks only behind China (Hook & Aleklett, 2010). Butit has been noticed that the US reserves are concentrated only in few states and haveconsiderably decreased from 29.2 MJ/kg 23.6 MJ/kg in the period of 1950-2007 due tomovement of subbituminous western coals by US (Hook & Aleklett, 2010). The production ofone kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity from coal is seen to produce 1kg of Carbon Dioxide(CO2), more than 200 grams of waste amounts of several metals and ash, seven grams ofnitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and particulates are released such as Methane (CH4), hydrogensulfide (H2S), hydrocarbons ethane (C2H6), etc. (Stracher & Taylor, 2004).
4Benefits of Wind PowerAccording to Klingenberg (1996), CO2 levels were around 345,000 parts per billion in 1996 ascompared to 290,000 parts per billion decades ago (Graedel & Crutzen, 1989). According to theU.S. Department of Energy, 2013, the dependency of the fossil fuels can be reduced using thewind energy as there is no emission of greenhouse gases. Although the generation of electricityis not just one cause of increasing CO2 level in the atmosphere but it contributes to a major shareof CO2 emission (Graedel & Crutzen, 1989). Therefore, the reduction of greenhouse gases in theatmosphere can be done by environmentally friendly electricity generation using wind power.The tunnel attachment of the wind has the ability of capturing low speeds of the winds especiallyat the lower altitudes which might lead to deduction in the wind turbines and will lead to overimprovement of the efficiency. A vital step can be taken by the wind power in the field ofrenewable source for production of energy. The current status of wind energy is promising. Thefourth edition of Global Wind Energy Outlook claimed that the wind energy constitutes 3.5% ofglobal electricity production. The share in power generation is estimated to reach 12% by theyear 2020 (Kuwahata et.al, 2013). At the end of the year 2012, the total global production of theWind Energy was 282 Giga Watts showing an increase of 44% from the year 2011 (Kuwahataet.al, 2013). The installation of wind energy had reached its peak during the year 2012, but afterthe same year, the total production of wind power generation has decreased due to severalreasons. In fact, the installation of wind energy for electricity generation falls to 18.7% which isthe lowest in the past two decades.The United States has also gained the global momentum, and the growth rate in thecountry was estimated to be around 27.9% during the year 2012. The total electricity produced inthe United States from wind energy was 140 terawatt-hours constituting the 3.5% of the total
5energy produced from entire sources (Armentrout & Armentrout, 2009). The US Department ofEnergy (DOE) has accelerated its efforts to install wind and water power generation capability ofthe country. The DOE also issues loans and guarantees to install wind electricity generation. TheDOE has estimated to supply 20% energy from the wind generation by the year 2030(Armentrout et.al, 2009).Disadvantages of wind energyWind energy is renewable energy form with lots of advantages; some disadvantages arealso there that makes it difficult to use it on a large scale. Some of the disadvantages of windturbines are as follows:1.Wind turbines cause a threat to wild life.2.Hurricanes and tornadoes are a matter of safety concern.3.It is not possible to set up the wind turbine in any or every area.For example, wind energy is not creating any air or water pollution but contributing a lot to noisepollution. This is because wind farms are situated far from the residential areas. Establishment ofwind turbines in remote areas may threat wildlife; it can harm birds flying high at the level of thewind turbine(Hutchins, M., & Leopold, B. D., 2016). Its base is deep down from the earthsurface which effects underground habits too. Wind turbines cannot be established in low windareas. Tornadoes or hurricanes are harmful to the wind turbines and are of safety concerns. It cancause damage to the labor working nearby. Before setting up the mill power curve, thrust curve,wind speed and turbine layout should be kept in mind before setting up the whole turbine in alocality. The high speed of wind is required to produce constant power. All this clears that it is
6impossible to build up wind plants in every location. Its disadvantages tell that it may not besuitable for every location, but advantages conclude it to be a great sourceAdoption of Wind EnergyThe main concerns for adoption and investments in the renewable energy technologiesalong with agreeing to the implementation policies for their support include environmental,security and economic concerns. The primary objectives for the adoption of wind energy on theglobal scale include the reduced risk from rising and volatile energy costs, energy security anddecreased carbon emissions and other pollutants. One of the primary reasons for the adoption ofwind energy worldwide is the fact that it is a highly environment-friendly source of energy. It isalso estimated that in future conventional sources of energy such as fossil fuels might run out.The world has to look for alternate sources of energy to meet the energy demands of the futuregenerations (Crossley, 2000).The most important factor towards the adoption of the Wind Energy as energy productionsource as it is the cleanest forms of energy. The use of wind power as a source of power ensuresthat there is no emission of carbon dioxide and other harmful gasses into the atmosphere and thusit is safer to use as compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power stations. The main concern,however, is to increase the output and efficiency of wind energy generation keep the costs undercheck.The wind power generation will be able to meet the increasing demand of the energy feltworldwide. The adoption of wind power can be beneficial in enhancing the diversity in thesupply market of the energy and help in securing long-term sustainable supplies of the energy.The emission of local and global atmospheric emissions will be reduced. Furthermore, in order to
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