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Biosecurity of Plants and Impacts on Human Beings Health Report

   

Added on  2020-07-23

14 Pages3610 Words96 Views
Disease and Disorders
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A case study on disease riskfrom the importation of graininto Australia
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Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................1MAIN BODY...................................................................................................................................1Types of diseases in grain plants.................................................................................................1Kinds of pests in plants...............................................................................................................5Methods of reducing risks in grains............................................................................................5Recommendations.......................................................................................................................7CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................7REFERENCES................................................................................................................................9
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INTRODUCTIONBiosecurity can be described as several approaches of building strategy to take care ofliving beings present on Earth such as plants, animals, human beings etc. It is important forreducing risk and uncertainty regarding safeguarding of them. Plant biosecurity risks are definedas problems creating diseases and pests which impacts negatively on agricultural industry.Government of nation tries to make better policies to protect market access, trade, agricultureand environment as growing crops is beneficial in all aspects (Fasina and et. al., 2012). Thisindustry is very profitable for annual income of the country as it contribute a precious amount init to make economic status strong. There are various kind of disease which are generated inplants and it is mandatory to reduce it through some effective methods so that healthy productscan be rendered to citizens for their welfare. This report will discussed about biosecurity ofplants in order to decrease risk of pests and diseases in crops that impacts on health of humanbeings living in the nation. MAIN BODYTypes of diseases in grain plantsAs per given case study, a problem of crop damage was detected around 2003 due thereason of soil borne wheat streak mosaic virus. It was observed that almost 505 to 80 precent ofyield got spoiled and country has faced huge loss for it. There are various kind of diseases whichcan be observed and analysed in plants and impacts on nutrients and minerals of grains likewheat and barley. These crops are very beneficial in international agriculture industry. Severaltypes of bacteria and other microorganisms are there that can impact on plants like soil-borneviruses that represent a groups pathogens that create different problems in crops (Cordell and et.al., 2011). Some of these agents are critically harmful as they spread themselves at very rapidscale and have efficiency to spoil the crops cultivated in particular area. Some of these diseasesare given below:Powdery mildew :- It can be determined by observing powdery patches of white colouron the upper surface of stem or leaves. Greyish-white spots on certain floral parts like sheath,stem, etc. these patches become black lesion and cause drying of all parts of plant and hencedamage it.
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Survival, spread and favourable conditions :-It is due to presence of a kind of funguswhich can survive in high hills in summer season in infected plant debris as dormant myceliumand asci. It spread primarily through asciospores and then after by airbiorne conidia. Mostlyfavourable condition for this infection can include humid weather and cool to moderatetemperatures like 20 to 21 degree centigrade (Bryden, 2012). (Source: Wheat: Diseases and Symptoms, 2018)Loose smut :- This can be described as seed borne disease in which infection generatesduring Loose Smut flowering through wind-borne spores. It is not observed into seed but candetected it's symptoms into plant grown from these infected seeds in inflorescence. It appears asmass of olive-black spores and initially covered with Gray membrane then after it get rupturesresults into head observes powdery. Survival, spread and favourable conditions :- This problem is usually in internal seedborne where pathogen infects embryo in seed itself and it creates basically by sowing effectedseeds. Most comfortable condition is for loose rust is cool, humid at the period of flowering inhost plant which is very essential for better results in crops.Brown rust :- It is generally observed on upper leaf blades and sheaths glumes or awnsget infected in rare cases. Basic signs are like slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rustalong with masses of orange brown Urediospores (Thow And et. al., 2011.).Survival, spread and favourable conditions :- These agents are usually survive insummers in low and mid altitudes of Nilgiris and Himalayas. It infects crops cultivated in easternIndo-gangetic plains in middle of January and moves towards west direction in the month ofMarch. An alternate hos fir this is Thalictrum sp. Most comfortable condition is temperature of20-21 degree centigrade that is free from moisture cause epidemics and results into loss of 30%yield of crops.2Illustration 1: Wheat: Diseases and Symptoms
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