A study on Apple UK Ltd Assignment

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DISSERTATION(“The reason behind gender,pay gap in UK Business: Astudy on Apple UK Ltd. “)
Table of ContentsTITLE.............................................................................................................................................1Chapter 1: Introduction...................................................................................................................1Overview of research.................................................................................................................1Rational of research...................................................................................................................1Aims associated with research...................................................................................................2Objectives associated with research............................................................................................2Questions of the research...........................................................................................................2Chapter 2: Literature Review..........................................................................................................3Chapter 3: Methodology and data collection................................................................................12Chapter 4: Results/Findings...........................................................................................................16Chapter 5: Analysis/Evaluation of Results/Findings....................................................................25Chapter 6: Conclusions.................................................................................................................27Chapter 7: Recommendations........................................................................................................28.......................................................................................................................................................29REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................30
TITLE“The reason behind gender, pay gap in UK Business: A study on Apple UK Ltd. “Chapter 1: IntroductionOverview of researchPay gap in gender is referred to variations in remuneration which has been paid byorganisation to their male and female working employees. It is being noticed that females thatare working for organisation are generally paid less than their male counterparts (Behrman,Meinzen-Dick and Quisumbing, 2012). Similar is the case in Apple Inc. where women are paid76p of £1 earned by men. The frequency of paying bonuses were higher in men when comparedwith women in the same organisations. Considering the pay difference on median grounds it hasbeen identified that there is a significant 42% variation in women and men on grounds onbonuses (The gender Pay gaps at Apple,2019).The major cause which has been identified for the pay gap in gender among theworkforce is primarily due to the difference in representation of manpower. The organisationhave been employing higher number of male employees when compared with female employees.The report suggests that there are only 29% of the women executives operating at a higher levelin the organisation (APPLE REVEALS GENDER PAY GAP FIGURES SHOWING IT PAYSWOMEN MORE ON SOME MEASURES, 2018). But the organisation have been workingcontinuously to increase diversity in its workforce which is not only confined to women but alsoincludes other marginalised groups. The people who are invited to be will be provided with ainclusive environment which will contribute positively towards production of innovative climate.For this dissertation, Apple is a chosen which is an America based multinationalorganisation operating in technological field. It was came into existence in 1976 and founded bySteve wozniak, Steve jobs and Ronald Wayne. Company is headquartered in 1Apple Park Way,Cupertino, California, U.S. This organisation mainly deals in the design, development andselling of online services, electronics and software to their customers.Rational of researchThe Major rational for this specific research is to identify the main reasons behind paygap in United Kingdom organisations such as Apple Limited. It is a multinational companywhich will help a society by giving job opportunities as well as improving their living stranded1
(Duguid, Loyd and Tolbert, 2012). This research is most essential in personal as well asacademic manner. In personal manager, researcher can easily improve their data analysis skill,literature review skill and data interpretation skill. All these type of skills are most essential andimportant for investigator to do each tasks along with activities of this research in an organisedway (Egger and Kreickemeier, 2012). In academic perspective, with the assist of this study,student can easily enhance their knowledge which will support them to analysis impact andbenefits of study.Aims associated with researchThe major aim for the research is "To determine the reason behind gender pay gap in UKBusiness: A study on Apple UK Ltd.Objectives associated with researchTo examine the study of gender pay gap in context of business.To identify causes prevailing in Apple UK that leads to gender pay gap.To analyse the influence of gender, pay gap over the financial performance of Apple UK.Questions of the researchExplain the study of gender pay gap in context of business?Describe several causes that leads to gender pay gap in Apple UK?What is the influence of gender pay gap over the financial performance of Apple UK?2
Chapter 2: Literature ReviewLiterature review refers to a document or a scholarly paper which covers accurateknowledge including theoretical, substantive and methodological findings and contribution to aspecific field of study. In addition, literature review are also known as secondary source forresearch and do not include original work which is performed for the first time. Thus, it is ascomprehensive summary and accurate data of previous investigation on a specific topic (Filippin,and Crosetto, 2016). In simple word, a literature review is a classification, evaluation andcompilation of what other investigators have written on a specific topic. It is a search as well asanalysis of an accessible literature and study in the selected topic area. Main purpose of thissection is to analyse the gaps and conflict in previous study. Along with this, in this section,research is capable to address all objectives of study in detailed and systematic manner. In orderto identify accurate information about the topic, different authors have to give their opinion andidea about them. Thus, it will help an investigator to complete each activities of investigation inaccurate and appropriate manner. It is considered as most imperative part of an explorationfinding as it is effective in providing in-depth analysis by evaluating the opinions andperspectives of different writers and authors (Foster and Walker, 2013). This section is written inaccordance to secondary source of information and data as here the required information iscollected with the help of secondary aspects like journals, books, published research articles etc.The study of gender pay gap in relation with business organisationsThe pay gap among genders is referred to the difference among the earnings of man andwomen in an organisation. In simple word, Percentage of male earnings and represents thevariation in the average per hour earnings of male & female employees. Gender pay gap is refersas the gap between the pay of men and women (Gilchrist, 2012). Gender pay gap is dependedupon two distinct numbers i.e. adjusted versus unadjusted pay gap. The another part is going toconsider deviation in working hours, eduction, occupation which is chosen and the jobexperience. As per the views expressed by David Anderson, 2019, gender pay equity is a majoraspect of contention at numerous organisations. Gender pay gap is treated as a main concern thathas huge influence on the operations and functions of business in effective manner. Genderearning gap is considered as one of the key aspect of required broad strategy which is needed foraddressing job gaps in female participation rate in working context. It is not going toacknowledge or solve the cultural, structural, policy and procedure issues that originate these3
differences. But this aspect is highly critical in nature. The sexuality pay gap is refers asdeviations and diversion among the per hour wage of both men & women that are working atsame organisation. It includes the comparison of pay scale of all women and men that worksworldwide. not only the just those are in similar area of working field, with same working styleand with akin abilities, qualification and experiences. The aspect of gender pay gap not onlysignifies any discrimination or absenteeism of equal pay and earning for same value work (Gilland Prowse, 2014). It mainly represents gender gap. In the situation when a female employee aregiven lower paid jobs in a business organisation that men, the difference in pay scale is mainlywider. In the context of business, gender pay gap is treated as a major issue which createdifferences among the employees and develops issues within working environment. There is ahuge difference in an unequal earning and the gender earning gap. When the pay of women isless in comparison to the men for same job position, it is not legal in nature and is illegitimatethrough the equality related legislation. The concept related with pay gap of opposite genders isdifferent in nature this it considered as the gapping among the average income of women andmen on the basis of average per hour earning for all workers including females and malesperforming similar work. Reports related with the Gender pay gap have no path to analyse if theopposite genders are given less amount for the same work area or been subjected to biasses ordiscrimination. In case of the organisation, gender pay gap is a major issue which may developconflicts and issue within working environment, this may also affect the operations and functionof business. It is essential for business firms to decrease the issue and problems of gender paygap in relation with increasing operational activities and performance of business in globalisemanner. As per views expressed by Morten Bennedsen, Margarita Tsoutsoura, Elena Simintzi,Daniel Wolfenzon, 2019, A business can be positive in relation with the inclusion and diversitywhile trying to manage gender balance but still faces a wide gender gap. In this context, the poolof graduate students from which an organisation recruits is not considered as gender balance. Insituation, where company do not give consideration to gender balance, faces problems of highgender gap. These organisations do not prefer to follow equal pay legislation. It can be said that agender pay gap is not able to indicate equality practices in an organisation. (Grant and Sleeter,2012). In today's modern era gender differences is the major issue as there is not any kind ofdifference in men and women working. However they are working on the same profile withsimilar efforts, so it is quite important for the businesses to reduce gender pay gap for the4
purpose of attaining higher growth and success. This also create value in developing the moreland personality of people within work place. Reduction in gender pay gap influence peoplemainly encourages women to enhance their capabilities and contribute their significant efforts inthe growth and success of business.Peer ReviewAs per the views of the authors it can be stated that gender pay gap is a major issue in thecontext of business which has huge impact over the progression of business. Gender pay gap isrefers as as a main concern which has huge impact on the operations and functions of businessin effective manner. In previous timing, organisations are facing issues related with gender paygap which affects the growth and sustainability of firm within market place, thus previouslypeople are not much aware about their rights and concern over attaining equal pay. Instead off intoday's modern business environment, people are very much aware about the concept of genderpay gap and their rights as well. So the key concern of businesses is to overcome with the issueof gender pay gap in respect to developing the operations and functions of business. Reduction ingender pay gap impacts over the individuals in developing their morale by encouraging people atwork place through reducing the issue of gender pay gap.Different reasons which leads towards gender pay gap in Apple UKAs per opinions expressed by Olivia Petter, 2019, the pay gap in opposite sexes isconsidered as the difference among hourly income for both men and women. From the year of2017 the equality act came into proper existence and the organisations that are employing aroundor more than two hundred fifty workers is legally needed to submit about their gender pay gapwhen a financial year ends. The organisations also requires to disclose the proportion of womenand men who gets higher range of financial bonuses (Jacka, 2014). Apple deals in largemultinational telecommunication company which has its high brand image within market. Thekey consideration of the firm is to treat their employees in equal manner for the purpose ofmaintaining stability and coordination among organisational operations. Genders pay gapunderstood through analysing the gap which is driven by the representation of women in ourworkforce. The differences among the average total pay a male receive relative to womendevelops the gap. Around 70 percent of employees population being men, there's a greaterpercentage of men in tenured leading positions which pay more, and who acquire effectiveamount of bonuses and more stock.5
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