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AbstractChildren are born into a world which has already been organized in gendered andheterosexist ways. In this sense, I believe toys are important components ofchildren’s socialization. Toys are considered as text which gives gender and sexualitymessages to children. I argue that toys have a significant role in terms of theformation of children’s gender, sexuality perceptions and sexual identity construction(Şalgam, 2015).This study aims to examine the roles of toys in the formation of children’s gender andsexuality perceptions. In this regard, this study seeks to discuss whether toys containgender and sexuality messages or not, what kind of gender and sexuality messagestoys present to children and in what degree toys can be non-conforming in terms ofgender and sexuality. This paper discuss based on gender consistent and genderinconsistent that I have conducted in a Coventry Nursery. In this study, it will bediscussing whether toys that are available to children on gender consistent and genderinconsistent, children in our case. In general, toys present normatively defined genderand sexuality messages, despite the existence of few genders consistent and genderinconsistent toys. This paper will be also arguing that children are provided withgendered toys. In other words, toys that are given to children are very likely to varydepending on their gender identities. In this sense, the toys given to children aregenerally oriented to develop gendered characteristics of children. Hence, toys have aconsiderable role in the reproduction of normative gender and sexuality.
IntroductionGenderidentityis typically defined as the concept of the self as male or female, but thereality of gender identity is far more complex since gender variance is not uncommon(Shawn Meghan Burn 2014).Kohlberg's theory of gender identity developmentdescribes how young children learn to understand their gender, and what being thatgender means in their everyday life.However children will develop identify themselvesas a “boy” or a “girl” by age three. By middlechildhood, children have fairly stableconceptions of how well they fit their gender category, how content they are with theirgender assignment, and how much they are expected to conform to gender stereotypes(Egan & Perry 2001). The first sign that been clarify of how gender differences developto influence the child is during the selection of toys (Dinella, 2014). Therefore thisbehavior is a crucial for the study of gender differences between the children, since thefeedback with toys is a necessary aspect in the early experiences of the child and also,the type of toy play in which the children will involve and it will shape their social withToys play an important part in defining gender roles. If parents buy girls dolls,dollhouses, high-heeled shoes, and makeup, they give one set of messages. If they buyboys chemistry sets, tool kits, doctor’s bags, building blocks, and wheel toys, they giveanother set of messages. Hereby, parents’ influences on children gender typed choicesare crucial because parents also tend to buy different toys to play with. Children learnroles and skills from playing; the toys they have to some extent determine which rolesand skills they learn.In this sense, toys are important components of children’ssocialization into social roles and rules of gender and sexuality, because toys areconsidered as text which gives gender and sexuality messages to children (Francis,2010). Hence toys have significant role in terms of the formation of children’sgender and sexuality perception and their gender and sexual identity construction inearly childhood.
METHODDesignThe research design of this study was on quasi – experimental as the studies were ongender consistent and gender inconsistent. The independent variable was manipulatedwith 2 different types of toys based on gender consistent and gender inconsistent.Therefore for dependent variable is that time was used to measured and the time beenspend with the two genders.ParticipantParticipants (n = 20) were Coventry Nursery Student. Participant included 10 male and10 female. Mean age was 34.5 and standard division of 10.8. The kids were randomlyassigned to the experimental condition. There were 10 participants in the genderconsistent and there were 10 participants in gender in consistent. The setting of theexperiment was in the room.MaterialsThe gender experiments has defined as 5 male toys was police man, lego, cars,dressing up (policeman), and gun where else the 5 girls toys was barbie doll, beads andthread, cooking items, and dressing up ( princess). In the room where the genderexperiment was carried out a video camera was fixed in the room to record the activityof the kids with the assistant with adults and they were asked to play only with a box oftoy that been provided. However operational research was used in this experiment toanalysis the decision making of the kids on the toys that they choose to play with.ProcedureParticipants were called to play alone in a room with and adult supervising them.However in the room there was a video camera fixed to record the participant play.Participants were provided a box of toys in a room. Parents were asked to sign astandard Psychology Department consent form and also been informed that they havethe right to withdraw from the study at any point of time.