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This project report consists of measurement of results of Royal Dutch Shell PLC for the two consecutive years 2019 and 2018 through key performance indicators which is ratio analysis. These analyses consists many ratios like liquidity, profit, gearing, investment and market.

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Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................4

Ratio analysis of the company.........................................................................................................4

Liquidity ratio..............................................................................................................................4

Profitability ratio..........................................................................................................................6

Efficiency and operation..............................................................................................................9

Gearing ratio..............................................................................................................................11

Investment and market related...................................................................................................12

Market........................................................................................................................................13

CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................14

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................15

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................4

Ratio analysis of the company.........................................................................................................4

Liquidity ratio..............................................................................................................................4

Profitability ratio..........................................................................................................................6

Efficiency and operation..............................................................................................................9

Gearing ratio..............................................................................................................................11

Investment and market related...................................................................................................12

Market........................................................................................................................................13

CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................14

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................15

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This project report consists of measurement of results of Royal Dutch Shell PLC for the two

consecutive years 2019 and 2018 through key performance indicators which is ratio analysis.

These analyses consists many ratios like liquidity, profit, gearing, investment and market.

Liquidity ratio shows how efficiently Royal Dutch Shell PLC can convert its current assets into

liquidity or cash. Profitability ratios show a company's overall efficiency and performance.

Ratios showing returns represent the firm's ability to measure overall efficiency to deliver returns

for its shareholders. The efficiency ratio is typically used to analyze how well a company uses its

assets and liabilities internally. An efficiency ratio can calculate the turnover of receivables,

repayment of liabilities, amount and utilization of equity, and general use of inventory and

machinery. A share is an inseparable unit of capital, giving ownership to the shareholder and

creating an ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder.

Price to income ratio is only an indication but before making investment decision it is necessary

to do a complete study, analysis, research of the market as well as knowledge of the industry and

business of the above category. Each of these measures is used differently, but jointly, they

present a very accurate financial picture of a publicly traded company. It is also recommended

that company should not blindly appraise its project or performance based on ratio analyses,

because these analyses only show proportion. It totally ignores the size of the operations.

This project report consists of measurement of results of Royal Dutch Shell PLC for the two

consecutive years 2019 and 2018 through key performance indicators which is ratio analysis.

These analyses consists many ratios like liquidity, profit, gearing, investment and market.

Liquidity ratio shows how efficiently Royal Dutch Shell PLC can convert its current assets into

liquidity or cash. Profitability ratios show a company's overall efficiency and performance.

Ratios showing returns represent the firm's ability to measure overall efficiency to deliver returns

for its shareholders. The efficiency ratio is typically used to analyze how well a company uses its

assets and liabilities internally. An efficiency ratio can calculate the turnover of receivables,

repayment of liabilities, amount and utilization of equity, and general use of inventory and

machinery. A share is an inseparable unit of capital, giving ownership to the shareholder and

creating an ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder.

Price to income ratio is only an indication but before making investment decision it is necessary

to do a complete study, analysis, research of the market as well as knowledge of the industry and

business of the above category. Each of these measures is used differently, but jointly, they

present a very accurate financial picture of a publicly traded company. It is also recommended

that company should not blindly appraise its project or performance based on ratio analyses,

because these analyses only show proportion. It totally ignores the size of the operations.

INTRODUCTION

Royal Dutch Shell PLC also known as Shell is a British-Dutch company which deals mainly in

oil and gas together. It was founded in 1907, and company’s headquarter is located at

Netherlands but incorporated in UK. Today, Shell is operated in more than 70 countries, it

explored and produce only gas and oil then it refines it, transport to destination, distributing and

marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading are the major activities or operations of

the company. Shell also deals in renewable energies through biofuels, wind and hydrogen.

Ratio analysis of the company

Ratio analysis is the key performance indicator which measures the efficiency and productivity

of the company through comparing present result with past years ratios. Some of the ratio

analysis techniques are discussed below:

Liquidity ratio

Liquidity describes the degree to which an asset or security can be quickly bought or sold in the

market without affecting the asset's price. In simpler words, liquidity is to get your money

whenever you need it. Cash is considered the most Liquid asset, while real estate, collectibles

and fine arts are all relatively illiquid. Liquidity is the ease of converting tangible assets into cash

and it has different connotations for different situations and contexts. Liquidity is the extent to

which an asset can be bought or sold quickly without affecting the asset's price. Liquidity also

plays an important role as it allows you to seize opportunities (Easton and Sommers, 2018).

Some of the types of liquidity ratios are acid test ratio, current ratio and cash ratio:

Acid test ratio: The acid-test ratio is a more well-conservative version. Although both are similar,

the acid-test ratio provides a more rigorous assessment of the company's ability to pay its current

liabilities. This eliminates all but the most liquid of current assets. The list is the most notable

exclusion, as it is not rapidly convertible into cash and is often sold on credit. Some analysts

include inventories in the ratio, however, if it is more liquid than some realizations (Gabric,

2018).

Royal Dutch Shell PLC also known as Shell is a British-Dutch company which deals mainly in

oil and gas together. It was founded in 1907, and company’s headquarter is located at

Netherlands but incorporated in UK. Today, Shell is operated in more than 70 countries, it

explored and produce only gas and oil then it refines it, transport to destination, distributing and

marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading are the major activities or operations of

the company. Shell also deals in renewable energies through biofuels, wind and hydrogen.

Ratio analysis of the company

Ratio analysis is the key performance indicator which measures the efficiency and productivity

of the company through comparing present result with past years ratios. Some of the ratio

analysis techniques are discussed below:

Liquidity ratio

Liquidity describes the degree to which an asset or security can be quickly bought or sold in the

market without affecting the asset's price. In simpler words, liquidity is to get your money

whenever you need it. Cash is considered the most Liquid asset, while real estate, collectibles

and fine arts are all relatively illiquid. Liquidity is the ease of converting tangible assets into cash

and it has different connotations for different situations and contexts. Liquidity is the extent to

which an asset can be bought or sold quickly without affecting the asset's price. Liquidity also

plays an important role as it allows you to seize opportunities (Easton and Sommers, 2018).

Some of the types of liquidity ratios are acid test ratio, current ratio and cash ratio:

Acid test ratio: The acid-test ratio is a more well-conservative version. Although both are similar,

the acid-test ratio provides a more rigorous assessment of the company's ability to pay its current

liabilities. This eliminates all but the most liquid of current assets. The list is the most notable

exclusion, as it is not rapidly convertible into cash and is often sold on credit. Some analysts

include inventories in the ratio, however, if it is more liquid than some realizations (Gabric,

2018).

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The acid-test ratio can be calculated as follows:

Acid-Test Ratio = (Cash + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable) / Current Liabilities

A common alternative formula is:

Acid-Test Ratio = (Current Assets - Inventory) / Current Liabilities

Acid test ratio (2019) = $70,404 M / $79,767 M = 0.88

Acid test ratio (2018) = $55,569 M / $73,825 M = 0.75

Hence, above acid test ratio indicates that in 2019 company is better position as compared to

2018. But both situations are not good for the company; Shell should try to improve this ratio.

Current ratio: Current ratios are a popular financial ratio among research analysts to measure a

firm's liquidity (also referred to as the firm's working capital). It is calculated by dividing the

firm's current assets by its current liability. It is one of the important ratios for measuring the

liquidity of a firm as current liabilities are due within a year. The current ratio measures the

liquidity / working capital management of a company. This gives the investor an idea whether a

company has the ability to generate enough cash to pay its short-term liabilities. The higher this

ratio, the higher the current assets a company has compared to its liabilities (Bragg, 2018).

The formula for calculating current ratio is as follows:

Current ratio (2019) = $95,404 M / $79,767 M = 1.19

Current ratio (2018) = $86,569 M / $73,825 M = 1.17

Hence, the company faces liquidity problems when they are unable to collect their receivables.

Under the ratio of 1:1, a company may be unable to pay its current liabilities at the same time all

liabilities occur. The current ratio of less than 1 does not mean that the company will go

bankrupt; however, it indicates that the company may be in poor financial health. On the other

Acid-Test Ratio = (Cash + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable) / Current Liabilities

A common alternative formula is:

Acid-Test Ratio = (Current Assets - Inventory) / Current Liabilities

Acid test ratio (2019) = $70,404 M / $79,767 M = 0.88

Acid test ratio (2018) = $55,569 M / $73,825 M = 0.75

Hence, above acid test ratio indicates that in 2019 company is better position as compared to

2018. But both situations are not good for the company; Shell should try to improve this ratio.

Current ratio: Current ratios are a popular financial ratio among research analysts to measure a

firm's liquidity (also referred to as the firm's working capital). It is calculated by dividing the

firm's current assets by its current liability. It is one of the important ratios for measuring the

liquidity of a firm as current liabilities are due within a year. The current ratio measures the

liquidity / working capital management of a company. This gives the investor an idea whether a

company has the ability to generate enough cash to pay its short-term liabilities. The higher this

ratio, the higher the current assets a company has compared to its liabilities (Bragg, 2018).

The formula for calculating current ratio is as follows:

Current ratio (2019) = $95,404 M / $79,767 M = 1.19

Current ratio (2018) = $86,569 M / $73,825 M = 1.17

Hence, the company faces liquidity problems when they are unable to collect their receivables.

Under the ratio of 1:1, a company may be unable to pay its current liabilities at the same time all

liabilities occur. The current ratio of less than 1 does not mean that the company will go

bankrupt; however, it indicates that the company may be in poor financial health. On the other

hand, a ratio that is too high may indicate that the company is not efficiently utilizing its current

assets or liabilities. Therefore, in 2019; Shell is in better position than 2018.

Cash Ratio: It is measurement of company’s liquidity. It only focuses on determining total

proportion of cash with current debts. Formula = Cash & cash equivalents / current liabilities

Cash ratio:

2019 = $18.1 billion / $79.7 billion

= 0.22

2018 = $26.7 billion / $73.8 billion

= 0.36

Hence, in 2018; cash ratio of Royal shell is far better than 2019’s ratio. Company has not shown

any improvement rather it has downfall from existing ratio from 0.36 to 0.22.

Profitability ratio

Every firm is very concerned with its profitability. The most commonly used tool of financial

ratio analysis is profit ratio, which is used to return a company's bottom line and its investors.

Profitability measures are important for company managers and owners. If investors outside a

small business have their money invested in the company, the primary owner can certainly show

profitability to those equity investors (Noh and Lim, 2019).

Profitability ratios are divided into two types: margin and return ratios that show the margin

measurement represents the firm's ability to translate sales dollars into profits at different stages.

Margin ratio

Gross Profit Margin: Gross profit margin refers to the price of goods sold as a percentage of

sales. This ratio looks at how well the company controls its inventory costs and the

manufacturing of its products and subsequently passes on the costs to its customers. The larger

the gross profit margin, the better it is for the company (Dawar, 2017).

assets or liabilities. Therefore, in 2019; Shell is in better position than 2018.

Cash Ratio: It is measurement of company’s liquidity. It only focuses on determining total

proportion of cash with current debts. Formula = Cash & cash equivalents / current liabilities

Cash ratio:

2019 = $18.1 billion / $79.7 billion

= 0.22

2018 = $26.7 billion / $73.8 billion

= 0.36

Hence, in 2018; cash ratio of Royal shell is far better than 2019’s ratio. Company has not shown

any improvement rather it has downfall from existing ratio from 0.36 to 0.22.

Profitability ratio

Every firm is very concerned with its profitability. The most commonly used tool of financial

ratio analysis is profit ratio, which is used to return a company's bottom line and its investors.

Profitability measures are important for company managers and owners. If investors outside a

small business have their money invested in the company, the primary owner can certainly show

profitability to those equity investors (Noh and Lim, 2019).

Profitability ratios are divided into two types: margin and return ratios that show the margin

measurement represents the firm's ability to translate sales dollars into profits at different stages.

Margin ratio

Gross Profit Margin: Gross profit margin refers to the price of goods sold as a percentage of

sales. This ratio looks at how well the company controls its inventory costs and the

manufacturing of its products and subsequently passes on the costs to its customers. The larger

the gross profit margin, the better it is for the company (Dawar, 2017).

The calculation is: Gross profit / Net sales = ____% both terms of the equation come from the

company's income statement.

Gross profit ratio (2019) = $ 55,080 M / $305,179 M

= 18.04%

Gross profit ratio (2018) = $ 45,078 M / $310,215 M

= 14.53%

Hence, gross profit ratio or margin shows 18.04% proportion of net sales while in 2018 it was

only 14.53%; this indicates that Shell has improved its financial performance compared to

previous year.

Operating profit margin: Operating profit is also known as EBIT and is found on the company's

income statement. EBIT is earnings before interest and taxes. Operating profit margin represents

EBIT as a percentage of sales. The operating profit margin ratio is a measure of overall operating

capacity, which includes all expenses of normal, daily business activity (Eze and Onoh, 2018).

The calculation is: EBIT / Net Sales = _____% both terms of the equation come from the

company's income statement.

Operating profit margin (2019) = $22,100 M / $305,179 M

= 7.24%

Operating profit margin (2018) = $18,265 M / $310,215 M

= 5.88%

Hence, the operating profit margin of the Shell in 2019 was 7.24% which indicates that company

pays approx. 2% for paying tax and interest debts. While it is more than 2018 ratio of 5.88%;

therefore it shows improvement in financial performance compare to previous year.

Net profit margin: When performing a simple profitability ratio analysis, the net profit margin is

the highest margin ratio used. Net profit margin shows that each expense is shown as net income

after all dollar expenses. For example, if the net profit margin is 5 percent, it means that every

company's income statement.

Gross profit ratio (2019) = $ 55,080 M / $305,179 M

= 18.04%

Gross profit ratio (2018) = $ 45,078 M / $310,215 M

= 14.53%

Hence, gross profit ratio or margin shows 18.04% proportion of net sales while in 2018 it was

only 14.53%; this indicates that Shell has improved its financial performance compared to

previous year.

Operating profit margin: Operating profit is also known as EBIT and is found on the company's

income statement. EBIT is earnings before interest and taxes. Operating profit margin represents

EBIT as a percentage of sales. The operating profit margin ratio is a measure of overall operating

capacity, which includes all expenses of normal, daily business activity (Eze and Onoh, 2018).

The calculation is: EBIT / Net Sales = _____% both terms of the equation come from the

company's income statement.

Operating profit margin (2019) = $22,100 M / $305,179 M

= 7.24%

Operating profit margin (2018) = $18,265 M / $310,215 M

= 5.88%

Hence, the operating profit margin of the Shell in 2019 was 7.24% which indicates that company

pays approx. 2% for paying tax and interest debts. While it is more than 2018 ratio of 5.88%;

therefore it shows improvement in financial performance compare to previous year.

Net profit margin: When performing a simple profitability ratio analysis, the net profit margin is

the highest margin ratio used. Net profit margin shows that each expense is shown as net income

after all dollar expenses. For example, if the net profit margin is 5 percent, it means that every

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dollar has a profit of 5 cents. Net profit margins counter the profits after considering all

expenses, including tax, interest, and depreciation (Harelimana, 2017).

The calculation is: Net Income / Net Sales = _____% both terms of the equation come from the

income statement.

Net profit margin (2019) = $13,435 Million/ $305,179 Million

= 4.40%

Net profit margin (2018) = $12,456 Million / $310,215 Million

= 4.01%

Hence, the result shows that company had only 4.40% Net profit margin in 2019; which is very

much less and need to increase this ratio. But it has improved with comparison to margin ratio of

2018.

Cash flow margin: The cash flow margin ratio is a significant ratio because it expresses the

relationship between cash generated from operations and sales. Cash flow margin ratio measures

a firm's ability to translate sales into cash (Özbek, 2016). The calculation is:

Cash flow Operating cash flow / Net sales = _____% the fraction of the equation comes from the

firm's cash flow statement. Lower income comes from the statement. More percentage is better

for the firm’s performance.

Cash flow margin (2019) = $ 9,565 M / $305,179 Million = 3.13%

Cash flow margin (2018) = $ 4,057 M / $310,215 Million = 1.30%

Hence, from the calculation above, it is analyzed that Shell has more cash flow margin in 2018

as compared to 2018; this indicates that company has improved its financial performance.

Returns rates

Return on Assets or Return on Investment: The Return on Assets ratio is a significant

profitability ratio as it measures the efficiency with which a company is managing its

investments in assets and using them to generate profits (Kazak, 2018).

expenses, including tax, interest, and depreciation (Harelimana, 2017).

The calculation is: Net Income / Net Sales = _____% both terms of the equation come from the

income statement.

Net profit margin (2019) = $13,435 Million/ $305,179 Million

= 4.40%

Net profit margin (2018) = $12,456 Million / $310,215 Million

= 4.01%

Hence, the result shows that company had only 4.40% Net profit margin in 2019; which is very

much less and need to increase this ratio. But it has improved with comparison to margin ratio of

2018.

Cash flow margin: The cash flow margin ratio is a significant ratio because it expresses the

relationship between cash generated from operations and sales. Cash flow margin ratio measures

a firm's ability to translate sales into cash (Özbek, 2016). The calculation is:

Cash flow Operating cash flow / Net sales = _____% the fraction of the equation comes from the

firm's cash flow statement. Lower income comes from the statement. More percentage is better

for the firm’s performance.

Cash flow margin (2019) = $ 9,565 M / $305,179 Million = 3.13%

Cash flow margin (2018) = $ 4,057 M / $310,215 Million = 1.30%

Hence, from the calculation above, it is analyzed that Shell has more cash flow margin in 2018

as compared to 2018; this indicates that company has improved its financial performance.

Returns rates

Return on Assets or Return on Investment: The Return on Assets ratio is a significant

profitability ratio as it measures the efficiency with which a company is managing its

investments in assets and using them to generate profits (Kazak, 2018).

Calculated for Return on Assets Ratio: Net Income / Total Assets = _____% Net Income is

derived from the Income Statement and Total Assets is taken from the Balance Sheet. The higher

the percentage, the better it is, because it means that the company is doing a good job using its

assets to increase sales.

Return on Investment (2019) = $13,435 M / $407,097 M = 3.30%

Return on Investment (2018) = $12,456 M / $411,275 M = 3.02%

Royal shell has shown better performance in 2019 compared to previous year in terms of more

return on its total assets (current assets + fixed assets). The reason behind this improvement is

increase in net income and decrease in total assets; due to sale of properties.

Return on equity: Return on equity ratio is probably the most important of all financial ratios for

investors in the company. It measures the return on the money that has been put into the

company by the investors. This ratio is what the potential investors look for if they invest in the

company (Myšková and Hájek, 2017).

The calculation is: Net income / shareholder's equity = _____% Net income comes from the

income statement and shareholder's equity comes from the balance sheet.

Return on equity (2019) = $13,435 M / $ 194,356 M = 6.91%

Return on equity (2018) = $12,456 M / $ 186,646 M = 6.67%

As the calculation above shows more return on equity capital, due to increased in net income

with more proportion to increase in equity capital from 2018 to 2019. This indicates

improvement in financial performance of the firm.

Cash Return on Assets: Cash return on assets ratio is typically used only in more advanced

profitability ratio analysis. It is used as a comparison of return on assets because it is a

comparison of cash to this ratio because of assets. Returns have been made on accrual basis.

Cash is necessary for future investment (Tinkelman and Fan, 2018).

derived from the Income Statement and Total Assets is taken from the Balance Sheet. The higher

the percentage, the better it is, because it means that the company is doing a good job using its

assets to increase sales.

Return on Investment (2019) = $13,435 M / $407,097 M = 3.30%

Return on Investment (2018) = $12,456 M / $411,275 M = 3.02%

Royal shell has shown better performance in 2019 compared to previous year in terms of more

return on its total assets (current assets + fixed assets). The reason behind this improvement is

increase in net income and decrease in total assets; due to sale of properties.

Return on equity: Return on equity ratio is probably the most important of all financial ratios for

investors in the company. It measures the return on the money that has been put into the

company by the investors. This ratio is what the potential investors look for if they invest in the

company (Myšková and Hájek, 2017).

The calculation is: Net income / shareholder's equity = _____% Net income comes from the

income statement and shareholder's equity comes from the balance sheet.

Return on equity (2019) = $13,435 M / $ 194,356 M = 6.91%

Return on equity (2018) = $12,456 M / $ 186,646 M = 6.67%

As the calculation above shows more return on equity capital, due to increased in net income

with more proportion to increase in equity capital from 2018 to 2019. This indicates

improvement in financial performance of the firm.

Cash Return on Assets: Cash return on assets ratio is typically used only in more advanced

profitability ratio analysis. It is used as a comparison of return on assets because it is a

comparison of cash to this ratio because of assets. Returns have been made on accrual basis.

Cash is necessary for future investment (Tinkelman and Fan, 2018).

The calculation is: Cash flow from operating activities / total assets = _____% share is taken

from the statement of cash flow and everything from the balance sheet. The higher the

percentage, the better it is.

Cash return on Assets (2019) = $22,100 M / $407,097 M = 5.42%

Cash return on Assets (2018) = $18,265 M / $ 411,275 M = 4.44%

This calculation shows proportion of cash earned by Royal Shell from available total assets. The

figure indicates that; company has shown improvement in given ratio as compared with previous

year.

Efficiency and operation

The efficiency ratio, also known as the activity ratio, is used by analysts to measure the

performance of a company's short-term or current performance. Some of the efficiency and

operation ratios are discussed below:

Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio: To calculate a company's accounts receivable turnover

ratio, start with net receivable sales for a set period, then divide by the average accounts

receivable balance for the period (Kendirli, Cankaya and Cagatay, 2017). The formula for

accounts receivable turnover ratio:

Accounts receivable turnover ratio (2019) = $180,475 / $49,869 = 3.61 times

Accounts receivable turnover ratio (2018) = $200,156 / $53,645 = 3.73 times

Hence, it is clear that; in 2019 average receivables is less than 2018, which indicates less risk for

the Shell of bad debts. Higher ratios are indications that the company is more efficient at

collecting on its receivables. A lower ratio may mean that the company struggles to achieve

receivables and may have cash flow problems.

from the statement of cash flow and everything from the balance sheet. The higher the

percentage, the better it is.

Cash return on Assets (2019) = $22,100 M / $407,097 M = 5.42%

Cash return on Assets (2018) = $18,265 M / $ 411,275 M = 4.44%

This calculation shows proportion of cash earned by Royal Shell from available total assets. The

figure indicates that; company has shown improvement in given ratio as compared with previous

year.

Efficiency and operation

The efficiency ratio, also known as the activity ratio, is used by analysts to measure the

performance of a company's short-term or current performance. Some of the efficiency and

operation ratios are discussed below:

Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio: To calculate a company's accounts receivable turnover

ratio, start with net receivable sales for a set period, then divide by the average accounts

receivable balance for the period (Kendirli, Cankaya and Cagatay, 2017). The formula for

accounts receivable turnover ratio:

Accounts receivable turnover ratio (2019) = $180,475 / $49,869 = 3.61 times

Accounts receivable turnover ratio (2018) = $200,156 / $53,645 = 3.73 times

Hence, it is clear that; in 2019 average receivables is less than 2018, which indicates less risk for

the Shell of bad debts. Higher ratios are indications that the company is more efficient at

collecting on its receivables. A lower ratio may mean that the company struggles to achieve

receivables and may have cash flow problems.

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Working Capital Ratio: The working capital ratio is also called a current ratio which focuses

only on the current assets and current liabilities of a company (Black and Maggina, 2016). It

helps in analyzing the financial health of any firm and if they will be able to pay current

liabilities with current assets.

Current assets are those that can be quickly converted into cash that can pay off the debt

efficiently in the shortest period. Hence current assets of receivables like cash, cash equivalents

and accounts will be carried forward efficiently to keep the cash flow healthy to achieve better

WCR (working capital ratio). The formula for calculation of working capital ratio is given

below:

WCR (2019) = $95,404 M / $79,767 M = 1.19

WCR (2018) = $86,569 M / $73,825 M = 1.17

Hence, if the working capital ratio is 1, it states that the company is not at risk and can escape

after paying off liabilities. For a firm to maintain a working capital ratio greater than 1, they need

to efficiently analyze current assets and liabilities. A healthy ratio for WCR is between from 1.2

to 2.0. So, in 2019; Shell is in better position compared to 2018.

Asset Turnover Ratio: The total asset turnover ratio measures a company's ability to use its assets

to generate sales efficiently. Ratio assumes all assets, current and fixed assets include assets and

equipment Examples of current assets include inventory and accounts receivable (Black and

Maggina, 2016). Formula for calculating Asset Turnover Ratio:

Net Sales / Total Assets = ______Time

Asset Turnover ratio (2019) = $305,179 M / $407,097 M = 0.74

Asset Turnover ratio (2018) = $310,215 M / $411,275 M = 0.75

Hence, lower numbers, such as sluggish sales, may indicate a problem with one or more asset

categories - total assets - inventory, receivables or real assets The small business owner must

only on the current assets and current liabilities of a company (Black and Maggina, 2016). It

helps in analyzing the financial health of any firm and if they will be able to pay current

liabilities with current assets.

Current assets are those that can be quickly converted into cash that can pay off the debt

efficiently in the shortest period. Hence current assets of receivables like cash, cash equivalents

and accounts will be carried forward efficiently to keep the cash flow healthy to achieve better

WCR (working capital ratio). The formula for calculation of working capital ratio is given

below:

WCR (2019) = $95,404 M / $79,767 M = 1.19

WCR (2018) = $86,569 M / $73,825 M = 1.17

Hence, if the working capital ratio is 1, it states that the company is not at risk and can escape

after paying off liabilities. For a firm to maintain a working capital ratio greater than 1, they need

to efficiently analyze current assets and liabilities. A healthy ratio for WCR is between from 1.2

to 2.0. So, in 2019; Shell is in better position compared to 2018.

Asset Turnover Ratio: The total asset turnover ratio measures a company's ability to use its assets

to generate sales efficiently. Ratio assumes all assets, current and fixed assets include assets and

equipment Examples of current assets include inventory and accounts receivable (Black and

Maggina, 2016). Formula for calculating Asset Turnover Ratio:

Net Sales / Total Assets = ______Time

Asset Turnover ratio (2019) = $305,179 M / $407,097 M = 0.74

Asset Turnover ratio (2018) = $310,215 M / $411,275 M = 0.75

Hence, lower numbers, such as sluggish sales, may indicate a problem with one or more asset

categories - total assets - inventory, receivables or real assets The small business owner must

analyze various asset classes to determine whether What is the problem or current asset. Both

results shows below 1; but 2018 result is slightly in better position than 2019.

Gearing ratio

It is a financial ratio which compares owner’s equity to debt of the company; it is measurement

of the financial leverage of the firm . Some of the gearing ratio’s type is discussed below:

Debt to equity ratio: A debenture is a means of long-term debt instrument for a company, used at

a fixed interest rate to raise capital from investors. These are mostly repayable on a fixed date.

When a part of the capital is raised through the general public through a primary capital market,

it is called the share capital of the company (Black and Maggina, 2016). Formula for calculating

debt to equity ratio is mentioned below:

Debt-to-equity = DEBT .

EQUITY

Debt equity (2019) = $73,795 M / $197,812 M = 37.30%

Debt equity (2018) = $82,417 M / $ 188,511 M = 43.71%

Hence, in 2019; Shell has 37.30% debt source of fund and in 2018 out of total fund, 43.71%

raises through borrowings. So, Shell’s WACC is more in 2019 as compared to 2018.

Investment and market related

It is applied by companies to measures the performance of firm’s shares. Some of the investment

and market related ratios are:

Price earnings ratio: Price to income ratio means the price per one share and the ratio of net

profit to the share of that share. By looking at the price to earnings ratio of a stock, we can

estimate how likely it is for the stock to rise. By looking at the price to earnings ratio of the

shares of any one industry or class, we can estimate how much there is a possibility of increasing

the value of the said stock (Black and Maggina, 2016).

Formula: Price per earnings ratio = Market price per share / Earnings per share

Price per earnings ratio (2019) = $2.33 / $1.28 = 1.82

results shows below 1; but 2018 result is slightly in better position than 2019.

Gearing ratio

It is a financial ratio which compares owner’s equity to debt of the company; it is measurement

of the financial leverage of the firm . Some of the gearing ratio’s type is discussed below:

Debt to equity ratio: A debenture is a means of long-term debt instrument for a company, used at

a fixed interest rate to raise capital from investors. These are mostly repayable on a fixed date.

When a part of the capital is raised through the general public through a primary capital market,

it is called the share capital of the company (Black and Maggina, 2016). Formula for calculating

debt to equity ratio is mentioned below:

Debt-to-equity = DEBT .

EQUITY

Debt equity (2019) = $73,795 M / $197,812 M = 37.30%

Debt equity (2018) = $82,417 M / $ 188,511 M = 43.71%

Hence, in 2019; Shell has 37.30% debt source of fund and in 2018 out of total fund, 43.71%

raises through borrowings. So, Shell’s WACC is more in 2019 as compared to 2018.

Investment and market related

It is applied by companies to measures the performance of firm’s shares. Some of the investment

and market related ratios are:

Price earnings ratio: Price to income ratio means the price per one share and the ratio of net

profit to the share of that share. By looking at the price to earnings ratio of a stock, we can

estimate how likely it is for the stock to rise. By looking at the price to earnings ratio of the

shares of any one industry or class, we can estimate how much there is a possibility of increasing

the value of the said stock (Black and Maggina, 2016).

Formula: Price per earnings ratio = Market price per share / Earnings per share

Price per earnings ratio (2019) = $2.33 / $1.28 = 1.82

Price per earnings ratio (2018) = $1.47 / $1.10 = 1.33

Hence, it is cleared that in 2019; share price is likely to be increase more than in 2018.

Earnings per share: Earnings per share (EPS) are the share of profit of the company allocated for

each share of common stock. EPS serves as an indicator of a company's profitability. It is normal

for a company to report EPS that is adjusted for extraordinary items, potential stock dilution.

EPS is a financial ratio that divides net income into common stockholders by the total

outstanding shares over a given period (Arnold, Ellis and Krishnan, 2018). Formula for

calculating EPS is mentioned below:

Income per share = Total income after tax / total number of outstanding shares

Weighted income per share = Total income after tax (total dividend) / Total number of

outstanding shares

EPS (2019) = $13,435 M / 10,496 = $1.28 per share

EPS (2018) = $12,456 M / 11,323 = $1.10 per share

Hence, after comparison of both 2019 and 2018 EPS; indicates that in 2019 shareholders get

more return on equity shares as compared to 2018.

Market

The market price ratio evaluates the financial position of your publicly traded company in the

broader market - in other words, whether your company's stock is highly valued, not valued or

valued. While there are wide variations in the use of market value ratios, the most popular

include earnings per share, book value per share, and price-earnings ratio. Others include price /

cash ratio, dividend yield, market price per share and market / book ratio (Arnold, Ellis and

Krishnan, 2018).

Formula: Market Price ratio = Market value per share / Book value per share

Market price ratio (2019) = $2.33 / $1.50 = 1.55

Market price ratio (2018) = $1.47 / $1.65 = 0.89

Hence, it is cleared that in 2019; share price is likely to be increase more than in 2018.

Earnings per share: Earnings per share (EPS) are the share of profit of the company allocated for

each share of common stock. EPS serves as an indicator of a company's profitability. It is normal

for a company to report EPS that is adjusted for extraordinary items, potential stock dilution.

EPS is a financial ratio that divides net income into common stockholders by the total

outstanding shares over a given period (Arnold, Ellis and Krishnan, 2018). Formula for

calculating EPS is mentioned below:

Income per share = Total income after tax / total number of outstanding shares

Weighted income per share = Total income after tax (total dividend) / Total number of

outstanding shares

EPS (2019) = $13,435 M / 10,496 = $1.28 per share

EPS (2018) = $12,456 M / 11,323 = $1.10 per share

Hence, after comparison of both 2019 and 2018 EPS; indicates that in 2019 shareholders get

more return on equity shares as compared to 2018.

Market

The market price ratio evaluates the financial position of your publicly traded company in the

broader market - in other words, whether your company's stock is highly valued, not valued or

valued. While there are wide variations in the use of market value ratios, the most popular

include earnings per share, book value per share, and price-earnings ratio. Others include price /

cash ratio, dividend yield, market price per share and market / book ratio (Arnold, Ellis and

Krishnan, 2018).

Formula: Market Price ratio = Market value per share / Book value per share

Market price ratio (2019) = $2.33 / $1.50 = 1.55

Market price ratio (2018) = $1.47 / $1.65 = 0.89

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A ratio of less than 1 can mean a stock might be undervalued, while a ratio greater than 1 might

mean it's overvalued. Hence, in 2019; market price of Shell is overvalued and in 2018 it is

undervalued.

mean it's overvalued. Hence, in 2019; market price of Shell is overvalued and in 2018 it is

undervalued.

CONCLUSION

Financial ratio analysis is only a good method of financial analysis when comparative data is

available. Ratios should be compared to historical data both for company and industry data.

While a high inventory turnover ratio is preferable to a lower ratio, it is not always an indication

of an efficient business model. Higher ratios may reflect a highly efficient sales model. However,

this can also be achieved by maintaining a low inventory level, which can make it difficult for

customers to serve on time. A high ratio may easily increase to a lower ratio next year due to

erratic inventory due to a drop in customer base.

Recommendation: After analysis of whole report; it is recommended that; evaluation of project

based on ratio analysis should not be done by the Royal Shell because ratio only represents data

in times, percentage and proportion; it totally ignores size of the business. It is also

recommended that use the market value ratio of potential and current investors to see how a

company's current share price lives up to its various metrics. In addition, market price ratios

provide management with an idea of what the firm's investors and future prospects think. Ratio

analysis has one more limitation that it ignores non financial metrics like decision for employee

improvement, relationship with investors and social ethics. But it is good measure to analyze or

comparison of same company’s financial data over the year. Royal Shell has improved with

compare to previous year performance; except turnover ratios. Hence Royal Shell should keep

tracking changes in financial key performances and ready to implement solution to improve or

reduce its impact on business.

Financial ratio analysis is only a good method of financial analysis when comparative data is

available. Ratios should be compared to historical data both for company and industry data.

While a high inventory turnover ratio is preferable to a lower ratio, it is not always an indication

of an efficient business model. Higher ratios may reflect a highly efficient sales model. However,

this can also be achieved by maintaining a low inventory level, which can make it difficult for

customers to serve on time. A high ratio may easily increase to a lower ratio next year due to

erratic inventory due to a drop in customer base.

Recommendation: After analysis of whole report; it is recommended that; evaluation of project

based on ratio analysis should not be done by the Royal Shell because ratio only represents data

in times, percentage and proportion; it totally ignores size of the business. It is also

recommended that use the market value ratio of potential and current investors to see how a

company's current share price lives up to its various metrics. In addition, market price ratios

provide management with an idea of what the firm's investors and future prospects think. Ratio

analysis has one more limitation that it ignores non financial metrics like decision for employee

improvement, relationship with investors and social ethics. But it is good measure to analyze or

comparison of same company’s financial data over the year. Royal Shell has improved with

compare to previous year performance; except turnover ratios. Hence Royal Shell should keep

tracking changes in financial key performances and ready to implement solution to improve or

reduce its impact on business.

REFERENCES

Books and Journals

Arnold, A.G., Ellis, R.B. and Krishnan, V.S., 2018. Toward effective use of the statement of

cash flows. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 30(2), pp.46-62.

Black, E.L. and Maggina, A., 2016. The impact of IFRS on financial statement data in

Greece. Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies.

Bragg, S.M., 2018. The Interpretation of Financial Statements. AccountingTools, Incorporated.

Dawar, V., 2017. Amtek auto: Analysis of financial statements. SAGE Publications: SAGE

Business Cases Originals.

Easton, M. and Sommers, Z., 2018. Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation, 5e.

Eze, G.P. and Onoh, J.O., 2018. Roles of Financial Statements in Treasury bill Investments in

Nigerian Banks. Journal of Business and African Economy, 4(2), pp.19-34.

Gabric, D., 2018. Determination of Accounting Manipulations in the Financial Statements Using

Accrual Based Investment Ratios. Economic Review: Journal of Economics and

Business, 16(1), pp.71-81.

Harelimana, J.B., 2017. Analysis of Financial Statements for Prediction of Business

Sustainability in Rwanda: A Case of Banque Populaire Du Rwanda Ltd. Global Journal

of Management And Business Research.

Kazak, H., 2018. Comparison of Financial Performances For Bim Chain Stores And Turkey

Retail Sector: A Study With Ratio Analysis On Balance Sheet And Income

Statements. Journal of Life Economics, 5(3), p.93.

Kendirli, S., Cankaya, M. and Cagatay, A., 2017. The effects of global economic crisis of 2008

to financial statements and liquidity ratios which companies are settled in bist energy

sector (2005-2013 term review). Journal of Economic Development, Environment and

People, 6(1), pp.6-21.

Myšková, R. and Hájek, P., 2017. Comprehensive assessment of firm financial performance

using financial ratios and linguistic analysis of annual reports. Journal of International

Studies, volume 10, issue: 4.

Noh, W. and Lim, J.Y., 2019. Nursing Productivity of Tertiary General Hospitals using Financial

Statements. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 25(1), pp.35-41.

Özbek, A., 2016. Efficiency analysis of gold mining companies through financial

statements. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social

Sciences, 6(10), pp.273-290.

Tinkelman, D. and Fan, X., 2018. What Weekly Sparklines Could Add to Financial

Statements. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 29(1), pp.46-52.

Online

Royal Dutch Shell plc Annual Reports, 2019; Online available through: <

https://www.shell.com/investors/financial-reporting/annual-publications/annual-reports-

download-centre.html>

Books and Journals

Arnold, A.G., Ellis, R.B. and Krishnan, V.S., 2018. Toward effective use of the statement of

cash flows. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 30(2), pp.46-62.

Black, E.L. and Maggina, A., 2016. The impact of IFRS on financial statement data in

Greece. Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies.

Bragg, S.M., 2018. The Interpretation of Financial Statements. AccountingTools, Incorporated.

Dawar, V., 2017. Amtek auto: Analysis of financial statements. SAGE Publications: SAGE

Business Cases Originals.

Easton, M. and Sommers, Z., 2018. Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation, 5e.

Eze, G.P. and Onoh, J.O., 2018. Roles of Financial Statements in Treasury bill Investments in

Nigerian Banks. Journal of Business and African Economy, 4(2), pp.19-34.

Gabric, D., 2018. Determination of Accounting Manipulations in the Financial Statements Using

Accrual Based Investment Ratios. Economic Review: Journal of Economics and

Business, 16(1), pp.71-81.

Harelimana, J.B., 2017. Analysis of Financial Statements for Prediction of Business

Sustainability in Rwanda: A Case of Banque Populaire Du Rwanda Ltd. Global Journal

of Management And Business Research.

Kazak, H., 2018. Comparison of Financial Performances For Bim Chain Stores And Turkey

Retail Sector: A Study With Ratio Analysis On Balance Sheet And Income

Statements. Journal of Life Economics, 5(3), p.93.

Kendirli, S., Cankaya, M. and Cagatay, A., 2017. The effects of global economic crisis of 2008

to financial statements and liquidity ratios which companies are settled in bist energy

sector (2005-2013 term review). Journal of Economic Development, Environment and

People, 6(1), pp.6-21.

Myšková, R. and Hájek, P., 2017. Comprehensive assessment of firm financial performance

using financial ratios and linguistic analysis of annual reports. Journal of International

Studies, volume 10, issue: 4.

Noh, W. and Lim, J.Y., 2019. Nursing Productivity of Tertiary General Hospitals using Financial

Statements. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 25(1), pp.35-41.

Özbek, A., 2016. Efficiency analysis of gold mining companies through financial

statements. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social

Sciences, 6(10), pp.273-290.

Tinkelman, D. and Fan, X., 2018. What Weekly Sparklines Could Add to Financial

Statements. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 29(1), pp.46-52.

Online

Royal Dutch Shell plc Annual Reports, 2019; Online available through: <

https://www.shell.com/investors/financial-reporting/annual-publications/annual-reports-

download-centre.html>

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