Advanced Research Methods for Tourism and Hospitality (pdf)

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Advanced Research Methods for Tourismand Hospitality
Table of ContentsIntroduction................................................................................................................................................4Task 1.........................................................................................................................................................4LO 1.1 Context of advanced research methods.....................................................................................4LO 1.2 Evaluating the research process................................................................................................5LO 1.3 Assessing the development of research in tourism and hospitality...........................................7Task 2.........................................................................................................................................................9LO 2.1 Evaluating range of research philosophies................................................................................9LO 2.2 Assessing range of sources of information to support and develop research..........................11LO 2.3 Analysing different approaches to research............................................................................12task 3........................................................................................................................................................14LO 3.1 Appropriate research methods in tourism and hospitality.......................................................14LO 3.2 Range of sources for effective data collection........................................................................15LO 3.3 Critically evaluating different approaches to data collection..................................................16Task 4.......................................................................................................................................................17LO 4.1 Evaluating range of secondary data........................................................................................17LO 4.2 Evaluating complex sets of primary data................................................................................18LO 4.3 Synthesising qualitative and quantitative data in complex mixed method approaches toresearch................................................................................................................................................19Task 5.......................................................................................................................................................20LO 5.1 Issues of reliability and validity in data and their solutions....................................................20LO 5.2 Developing and planning a research project...........................................................................20LO 5.3 Appropriate research proposal................................................................................................21Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................25REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................26
Illustration IndexIllustration 1: Research Triangle................................................................................................................7Illustration 2: Inter-disciplinary framework...............................................................................................9Illustration 3: Sources of information......................................................................................................11Illustration 4: Deductive Vs. Inductive Research Approach....................................................................14Index of TablesTable 1: Timetable....................................................................................................................................25
INTRODUCTIONTravel and tourism industry is considered to be one of the highly competitive landscapes in theUK, due to which it is very important for companies operating in this sector to research the market in abid to identify new trends and make necessary changes in its working (Cavusgil and Das, 2007). Thetourism industry today is evolving at rather a very rapid pace, due to which it is of utmost importancefor such companies to thoroughly assess the market. Research essentially is a process through whichdifferent facts and figures related to a topic can be determined. This way new dimensions can be addedto the subject matter. There are various benefits that can be obtained by conducting an intensive studyof a topic. For instance it helps in resolving various problems related to the subject matter; as well as toform and investigate various theories in terms of their suitability pertaining to the topic(Krishnaswamy, Sivakumar and Mathirajan, 2009).The present research is a testimony to provide a comprehensive understanding of aspects relatedto research within the travel and tourism industry. Here various research methods, approaches,processes, etc. are presented with a view point of Whitbread PLC, a UK based multinational hotel,coffee shop and restaurant. In addition to it, various research philosophies also have been evaluated inthe present report (Weller and Gulick, 2014). Different sources of information that may be used toconduct a research investigation also are presented and discussed in this research. Through this reportan attempt has been made so as to assess different sources of information that may be considered fortaking effective decisions in relation to the research investigation. On this basis, this research wouldshed light over different tools and methods that may be used to conduct a research investigation in thetourism and hospitality industry, so as to improve organizational functions of firms such as Whitbread.This way suggestions can be made that would help the firm to prolong its existence in the market andprovide effective services to the customers.TASK 1LO 1.1 Context of advanced research methodsResearch is a process through which either new facts are unveiled or an addition is made to theexisting ones (Babbie, 2010). Today conducting research into different areas and aspects of businessoperations has become crucial for companies, as it is a way through which their overall functioning canbe improved, as well as take decisions to prolong the firm's existence in market. Research is importantfrom a variety of view points. For instance it provides insights into determining solutions throughwhich a problem can be resolved. Furthermore it helped in developing abilities through which differentissues can be evaluated. Various theories related to subject matter can be developed and tested by using
different tools and methods of research (Whiteley and Whiteley, 2006). Today the context of researchhas changed by great margins. It can be supported through fact that in earlier times carrying out aresearch investigation was a very time consuming and complicated process, as there were a lot manyareas and aspects that had to be considered. But today major changes have happened in this regard. Itnow is a much simplified process, as new methods and tools have been developed (Love, 2005).Essentially there are two kinds of research –appliedandpure. As the name suggests, pureresearch is related to conducting an analysis into different subject matter, just for the sake of addingnew dimensions to existing studies; while on the other hand applied research is used in context toinvestigate or study a phenomenon (Noble and Smith, 2015). In short it can be said that the latter formof research helps in determining cause and effect relationships. These research methods are explainedin the following points:Applied research:Main purpose of using this type of research is to be able to conduct aninvestigation into different phenomena and real life problems. By following this method, aresearcher can attempt to provide solution for practical issues and also resolve them with easeand effectiveness (Bradford, 2015). It is conducted so as to be able to test different theories anddevelop new ones. Through it, results gained from pure research can be put to practical use.Pure research:It is that type of research which is conducted so as to enhance the knowledgebase of an individual and thus add to existing base of data and information pertaining to thetopic. It is exploratory in nature and is carried out with a practical 'end use' in mind.There are various concepts and contexts related to advanced research methods. One of them isthe philosophies considered to conduct such an investigation (Marshall, 2007). Over the yearsnumerous research philosophies have been developed, but two of them are very famous and are usedextensively –positivismandinterpretivisim. Through such kind of philosophies, a researcher can easilyand effectively conduct the investigation and thus attain desired results.LO 1.2 Evaluating the research processConducting any research investigation is a very complicated process largely because there are avariety of aspects that have to be considered in this regard (Fillis, 2007). Over the years, scholars,academicians and experts on the topic of research have developed different processes and systems. It isvery important to evaluate different research processes because it would help the scholar to understandelements that have to be paid a lot of attention so as to conduct the study in an efficient and effectivemanner. Several research processes with variety of stages have been developed over the years. Forinstance the one developed by Veal in 1992 consists of four steps –preparation and planning;
investigation; analysisandwriting up/presentation of results(Garland and Garland, 2012). But on theother hand, process developed by Polonsky & Waller (2005) contains six stages –problem definition;research objectives; research design; data gathering; data analysis & interpretation;andpresentingthe results. A scholar needs to ensure that he/she has thorough understanding of the process and severalstages involved in it. If it is not clear then the research cannot be carried out in an efficient and effectivemanner.Research process developed by Veal (1992) consists of four stages. According to Bradford(2015) this is a very simplified process of conducting any research investigation (Goddard andMelville, 2004). Further, the author also states that Veal had involved only four stages in the process,there are a variety of aspects which essentially should have been involved here, but rather have beenomitted. Due to this effectiveness of the overall process is reduced dramatically. Vaivio (2008) statesthat carrying out any research is a very complicated procedure, and simplifying it to this extent is notright, because it reduces the overall effectiveness of conducting a research study (Wakins, 2010). Thushere it is very important for the researcher to stay focused on the subject matter, as there is very limitedscope of discussing and evaluating other topics, though may indirectly be related to the topic. From thefollowing diagram, this research process can be explained and evaluated in a much better manner. Herethe researcher first would need to define subject area for the study. This means that first area which isto be investigated (Sobh and Perry, 2006). Once a general idea about the investigation is obtained bydeciding on subject matter, the researcher will have to decide and develop a specific topic related to thearea that has been decided earlier. Finally the research project is to be undertaken by performingdifferent steps and procedures.
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