American City Corporation- Doc

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Running head: American City CorporationAmerican City CorporationCS352-1603A-01Jivan WashingtonJuly 18, 2016
American City CorporationTable Of ContentsAmerican City Corporation..........................................................................................................................3The Database Models, Lanaguages and Architecture..................................................................................4Database System Development Life Cycle...................................................................................................6Database Management Systems.................................................................................................................9Advanced SQL............................................................................................................................................10Web and Data Warehousing and Mining in the Business World..............................................................11References................................................................................................................................................................122
American City CorporationThe American City CorporationIn 1968 the Rouse Company had formed a Subsidiary Company called American CityCorporation. The company was formed so that it could give advice to older cities to help formaplans based on the Columbia experience. In 1972 50 organizations used this model approachthat American City Corporation established and in 1970 Hartford Insurance followed and latersigned a 3 million dollar contract with American City Corporation.3
American City CorporationDatabase Models, Languages, and ArchitecturePlanning is a critical step in creating a database, and as much as jumping right intocreating tables and schemas may be tempting, taking a little bit more time to put everything intoperspective can always save us a lot of grief. In this article, we will look into certain elements ofa database management system, namely: the 3-level ANSI-SPARC architecture, dataindependence, data and database administration personnel, and how planning can help us makethe right choices concerning them, right from the very beginning. My company, the AmericanCity Corporation, is considering consolidating it databases to allow for central storage, access,and development, and therefore, understanding the above listed components of a DBMS isimperative.The acronym ANSI-SPARC stands for theAmerican National Standards Institute(ANSI), while SPARC stands forStandards Planning and Requirements Committee, and is adesign standard for database management systems (Özsu & Valduriez, 2011). This abstractstandard was developed in 1975 and consists of a three-level architecture: the external level, theconceptual level, and the internal level. Basically, the external level describes part of thedatabase that is useful to the users. Sometimes, it is normally referred to as the users’ view. Allirrelevant data or all unauthorized data are usually excluded from this view. This provisionimplies that users have access to the same personalized data, and changes to a single user do notaffect other users (Özsu & Valduriez, 2011).The second level, conceptual level, describes the intricate properties of the data stored,how they are inter-related, and the relevant integrity constraints. It is also good to know that onlythe data or database, administrators work at this level and that this level is always independent ofboth software and hardware operational (Özsu & Valduriez, 2011). Lastly, the internal levelillustrates how data is actually physically represented in the computer system. It shows how datais physically stored in both the computer and on the hardware. Together, the three levels ensurea substantial data independence as will be discussed in the ensuing sections.It is will be important for the American City Corporation to ensure immunity of its userapplications from any unprecedented changes in definition and the organization of data in itsdatabase (Date & Hopewell, 1971). This requirement can be taken care of in the initial stages of4
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