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AN201 : Indian Civilization Article

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AN201 : Indian Civilization
Note on Indus Valley Civilization ,Vedic period and Indian social
system with emphasis on Caste.
This paper has two aims- to elaborate on and lay out the Indian civilizations with special
focus on indus valley civilization and vedic period . The second one is to lay out the
social system of India centering around the caste subject and to also point out the
manifestations of caste.
India would become one of the world's most prominent centres of ancient civilisation.
India has performed a critical role in world history. Its accomplishments may still be felt
profoundly today, in a modern day India and its expanding worldwide impact. Indian
civilizationsflourished in a parallel with other ancient global civilizations. Early human
objects and relics, such as primitive tools, have been unearthed during archaeological
ndings , implying an incredibly early origin for human presence and technology in the
Whereas the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt have often received
acknowledgment for their accomplishments towards civilization, India has generally
been underestimated , particularly in the Orient, despite its vibrant heritage. The Indus
Valley Civilization (c. 7000-c. 600 BCE) was arguably one of the grandest civilizations of
the ancient world, encompassing more land than Egypt or Mesopotamia and
establishing a culture that was just as lively and sophisticated. Over the next
millennium, a group known as the Aryans, who spoke an Indo-European tongue,
migrated from Central Asia to the north of the Indian subcontinent . Later, they founded
clans and tribes and reigned over the indigenous Dravidian inhabitants they
As recorded in the earliest Indian scriptures, the Vedas, this era of ancient Indian annals
is regarded as the Vedic age. It is precisely the epoch during which the majority of the
fundamental characteristics of traditional Indian culture were established. Vedic
Hinduism's rise as India's fundamental religion, as well as the social/religious
manifestations known as caste, are instances.
Essay body(Reviews/ discussion )
Around the 4th millennium B.C, there existed sites scattered over present Pakistan, with various
regions displaying increased diversity. Many of these breakthroughs, such as town walls and
aesthetic attributes of the indigenous cultures, have been categorised under the broad label of
"pre-Harappan," . At this phase, there is indication of broader locations with better organization
and more elaborate constructions than the previous, basic towns.
In the years 1920–22, two of Indus valley civilization's most prominent locations were
uncovered. Harappa, on the Ravi River, and Mohenjodaro, on the Indus River, were the two
settlements. D. R. Sahani explored thefirst, while R.D. Bannerji excavated the latter. Also
known as the 'Indus Valley civilization,' since the bulk of its towns were found in and around the
plains of the river Indus and its branches.
The Indus valley civilization was a remarkably new development that appeared around in the
form of a convergence of facets from these belief systems, culminating in a much more
homogeneously built heritage, so that Harappan sites can be conveniently ascertained. There
was a significant shift in interpersonal interactions, society and authority. According to Jansen
(1981) there are currently roughly 800 Harappan sites that may be regarded as mature.
With a total size of 1.25 million km, this civilization spans more territory than upper and lower
Egypt together, or the pretty much the entire area of Sumer, Akkad, and Assyria merged. The
area basically shaped a semicircle, with its core at the Indus River and expanding eastward
both in the south to the Deccan and in the north to present Delhi over the Punjab.
D. D. Kosambi book elaborates and in clear language charts out the notable aspects of the
civilisation. The city residences were multi-story, grandiose,firmly made of well brickwork, and
equipped withfine baths and restrooms. The quality of the pottery and ceramics was
exceptional, and it appeared in bulk . There are quantities of beads , ornaments and similar
artifacts, simple necklaces , mirrors, small metalfigurines and plain metal vessels were
possessions of luxury class.
Nowhere else could such a sophisticated and outstanding civic structure be found so
meticulously designed at such an era. The Indus towns demonstrate truly extraordinary spatial
planning . A drain network for carrying along rainwater and waste disposal spots for
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