Analysis of Food Characterization

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATIONAnalysis of Food CharacterizationName of the Student:Name of the University:Author’s Note:
ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATION1Executive Summary:The data sampled from extrusion test of mayo and commercial data using a compression platens probe of “Rheometer” and“Metasizer” in marking rubic. The main objective if this analysis is to build up another scope of quick manufacture Heinz mayonnaisefor serving the application. The sampling result depends upon firmness, consistency and cohesiveness of two phases of theexperimental data of Heinz Mayonnaise. Developed team has enhanced the base formulation for a cold-hydrate low shear Heinzmayonnaise. We have emitted calculations effectively and units are accurately labeled in the calculation sheet placed in appendix. Inthis report, we checked the all pre assumptions and criterion for the determination of experimental data achieved by two-phasemeasurements. Different methods are used to texture measurement such as comparison test method, extrusion test method andcompression platens.
ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATION2Table of ContentsIntroduction:-...............................................................................................................................................................................................3Report Objectives:-......................................................................................................................................................................................3Data description:-.........................................................................................................................................................................................3Methodology:-.............................................................................................................................................................................................3Particle Size Analysis:-............................................................................................................................................................................3Processes of Viscosity Analysis:-........................................................................................................................................................4Viscosity Analysis:-.................................................................................................................................................................................4Processes of Viscosity Analysis:-........................................................................................................................................................5Materials:-................................................................................................................................................................................................6Processing Method:-................................................................................................................................................................................6Data Results:-...............................................................................................................................................................................................6Visual Analysis:-.....................................................................................................................................................................................7Data Discussion:-.......................................................................................................................................................................................16Conclusion:-...............................................................................................................................................................................................18Annotated Bibliography:-..........................................................................................................................................................................20
ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATION3Introduction:-Mayonnaise is consumed in high amount throughout the world a few centuries ago. Heinz Mayonnaise is a well-known saladdressing and can be used for various food service applications that have developed and changed surprisingly in recent years withnatural, decreased calories and varieties. Research and development food manufacturing company produces research and developmentteam at the company is developing a new range of low-cost, fast manufacture mayonnaise for food service applications. A baseformulation for cold-hydrated, low-shear mayonnaise composition is supplied where the development team has optimized itsformulation in marking rubric.We have verified consistency in data of food processing between classification and analysis of different samples. Particle sizeand viscosity analysis is conducted in sample with two phases (instant and commercial) of Heinz Mayonnaise. Heinz Mayonnaise hasqualified for its sensory properties such as appearance, size, shape, taste intricacy and aroma that could be justified as smooth, chalky,powdery, grainy, gritty, lumpy and fibrous. The analysis textures the results of analysis, sensory assessment and advancement ofHeinz Mayonnaise.In the following experimental report, textual properties of Heinz Mayonnaise have observational or semi-empirical sensoryassessment that is divided in two parts: analytical measurements (diagnostics test) and portray the product (graphical investigation).The report analysis reveals the rheological properties of the food that includes measuring the response of Heinz mayonnaise. We haveanalyzed the data of sample E (6) of product Heinz in this report in details. The viscosity measurements were taken two times each forinstant and commercial mayonnaise of Heinz. Not only those, the particle properties and volumes were tabulated for four samples ofHeinz Mayonnaise.Report Objectives:-The objectives of the experimental research are –1.To identify appropriate methods and techniques that could be used to characterize the emulsion structure of the instant and thecommercial mayonnaise samples of Heinz products.2.To use the techniques to determine the distribution of particle size of the instant mayo with varying Tween 80 concentrations.3.To use the techniques to determine the particle size distribution of the Heinz Lite mayo.4.To determine the influences on the emulsion stability of the instant mayo generation when Tween 80 concentration is reduced.5.To determine the interrelationships among shear stress, shear rate and viscosity to determine Viscosity analysis.6.To determine the distribution the volumes of particle of two phases of measurements of instant and commercial mayo of HeinzProducts.Data description:-According to the workshop 3, we prepared the instant Mayo for Heinz product and analyzed the particle size. Then we foundthe commercial mayo of Heinz. The instant mayo in percentage of weight indicated that Starch (4), Xanthan gum (0.2), citric acid(0.3) and Canola oil (40) has equal percentage of weight in all the factors. However, Tween 80 is absent in second and fourth samplewhile Egg powder is present in second and third powder. Egg powder has equal weight (0.5) in rest of the sample except fifth sample(5%) but Tween 80 is not carrying equal weight as fifth sample has comparatively lesser weight (0.5 >0.1) than other samples in restof the samples. We have added water in each sample of six batches of weight 300gm, where water is significantly low at fifth sample(50%).A proportion of samples prepared would placed in a centrifuge tube (e.g. 30 gm in 50 mL) and centrifuged at 1,000 x g force tovisually monitor for their properties and stability against phase separation, oiling off etc. The samples would also be analyzed visuallyfor difference in their properties such as viscosity and textural properties.We found six kinds of mayo samples that are grouped in six alphabetical categories. They are respectively-1. Pam’s Classic Mayo (Whole). (FCLM)2. Best Foods; Real Mayonnaise. (BCM-BEST)3. Heinz Original mayonnaise. (CCM-HEINZ)4. Eta mayonnaise Original. (ACM)5. Heinz Lite Mayonnaise. (ECLM-HEINZ)6. Eta Lite and Free Mayonnaise. (DCM-ETA)All of the mayo samples had two levels. One is instant mayo and other is the commercial mayo of the products.Methodology:-Particle Size Analysis:-The global market of particle size analysis is expected to grow rapidly from 2001 to 2016. Particle size is introduced forcomparing dimensions of flecks, droplets and bubbles. These could be colloidal and granular in nature. Particle size analysis isimportant in food industry. The knowledge of particle size is crucial in the food industry as it hampers the production and handling ofingredients and the formulation, processing and quality control of food and beverage products.
ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATION4Size of particle influences reactivity and solubility of ingredients. The processing of food products applied to a wide variety ofproducts including coffee, sugar, salt, flour, milk powder, chocolates and spices. Analytical techniques for measuring particle sizerange from traditional sieving and sedimentation to use from modern automated imaging and laser-based instrument. Image analysisand light scattering are the two major analysis procedure of particle analysis of Heinz product. The particle-size distribution (PSD) ofa food is a list of values or a mathematical function that states the relative amount typically by mass of particles according to the size.There are various methods for measuring particle size and distribution of particle size. Some of the processes are based onlight, ultrasound, electric field, gravity and centrifugation. Particle size was analyzed using“Mastersizer”.Setting chambers,centrifugal collectors, fabric filters, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators and filter press are the collective devices used in analysisof particle size distribution.Processes of Viscosity Analysis:-Particle size analysis is typically achieved by different technologies such as high definition imaging processing, analysis ofBrownian motion, gravitational setting of the particles and light scattering of the particles.1.Microscopy:It provides the information about sizes and shapes along with statistically suitable description of particle size.2.SEM:It is the same advantageous as microscopy with 3D information and gives detailed information about morphology ofparticles.3.Laser Diffraction:It is a robust method for obtaining the overview of particle sizes.4.BET:A process for determining the surface area, particle shape. BET helps to distinguish between particle sizes of non-porous particles.5.Sieving Analysis:Very cheap equipment is useful for searching single large particles in the mixture. This time consumingmethod needs a large sample amount.Figure1 and 2:Metasizer and Particle Size Distribution.Viscosity Analysis:-The viscosity of a fluid or colloid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. Theinformal concept of viscosity is “thickness” for liquids. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal or inviscidfluid. Zero viscosity is observed only at very low temperatures in superfluids. A liquid is said to beviscousif its viscosity issubstantially greater than water.Viscosity is a property of the fluid that opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving indifferent velocities. Viscosity was measured using“Rheometer”.All rheometers are manufactured for viscosity analysis. Themachines should be sensitive, versatile and reliable. Innovation flow manufacturing methods and a highly-skilled work force ofrheometers ensure high quality products with industry leading delivery times. The machines works with many factors such asminimum torque oscillation, maximum torque association, torque resolution, angular velocity range, frequency range, displacementresolution, axial force range, temperature of peltier plate, temperature of test chamber, concentric cylinder and electrically heatedplate.We observed mainly six variables to interpret the conclusion about particle dynamics driven by the experiment of HeinzMayonnaise . These are- Shear Stress, Shear rate, Viscosity, time, temperature and normal stress. Note that here, the temperature of allfactors are fixed in 20°C. Normal stress is equal for all kinds of food preparation process (0).VARIABLE DESCRIPTIOND(v, 0.1)The size of particle for which 10% of the sample is below this size.D(v, 0.5)The size of particle at which 50% of the sample is smaller and 50% is larger than this size. This value is also knownas the Mass median diameter (MMD).D(v, 0.9)A size of particle for which 90% of the sample is below this size.D[3,2]Surface, volume mean diameter (Surface area mean diameter, also known as the Sauter mean)D[4,3]Volume mean diameter (based on number and diameter of particles)Specific Surface Area(S.S.A)The total surface area per unit volume of the particle calculated from the distribution.ResidualThe degree to which the scattering light calculated for the size distribution matches the measured light scattering (%).
ANALYSIS OF FOOD CHARACTERIZATION5SpanThe measurement of the width of the distribution. The smaller the value the narrower the distribution. The width iscalculated as: = D(0.9)-D(0.1) /D(0.5)ConcentrationThis is the volume concentration. It is calculated from the Beer-Lambert law and is expressed as a percentage.ObscurationThe measure of the laser light obscured by the sample (%) (light intensity with sample) (light intensity withoutsample)UniformityThe uniformity is a measure of the absolute deviation from the median.Table1:A table describes the meaning of variables.Processes of Viscosity Analysis:-The texture of mayo was depicted using the traits of Shear stress, Shear rate and index of viscosity. Mayo texture estimations wereincorporated with 35-mm diameter cylindrical probe. Four texture parameters involving shear stress, shear rate, viscosity index andpreparation time were resolved in duplicate. The texture analyzer instrument measures the force required to produce or deform thefood sample and the sample to be expelled around a piston disc. Technical Terms in case of methodology are described below as thebackground of analysis-1.pH measurement: The pH of the three instant mayonnaise formulations and the commercial mayonnaise products wasmeasured using a pH meter calibrated with pH 7 buffer. The probe was inserted into each mayonnaise sample until the readingstabilized.2.Centrifugation of samples:Triplicates of all the mayonnaise samples were centrifuged using KendroMultifuge-Heraeus at200C for 10 minutes in normal stress 0 at a speed of 1500 rpm.The percentage of oil still in emulsion was calculated for each sample after centrifugation using below equation-3.Sample Dilution:Phosphate Buffer (PB) and 0.1% Sodium Doceyl Sulphate (SDS), both with a pH of 2.8 were used asdilution solvents for the instant mayo sample and the Best Foods Lite Mayo product.4.Malvern Mastersizer Technique:A mastersizer was used to determine the particle size distribution of mayo sample. Thediluted samples use both PB and SDS dilution solvents as Sample Dilution.5.Carl Zeiss Microscope Techniques:Each diluted sample as prepared following Sample Dilution was viewed under a CarlZeiss microscope at 40x and 100x magnification. The microscope uses an Axio cam MRC camera and the microscope is anAxioStar plus florescent and light microscope.6.Mechanism of Sodium Docecyl Sulphate (SDS):SDS is an anionic surfactant used as a fat emulsifier in food products byreducing the surface tension. It is used as a wetting agent. The addition of SDS to the samples make the samples have the samepH. Therefore, it is expected that the particle size of the fat globules would be smaller in the mayonnaise samples where SDSis used.Figure 3 & 4:Both figures indicate effect of Shear stress and Shear rate (gradient) in viscosity measure.
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