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Anatomy & Physiology / Health & Social Care (ASTHMA) - Essay

Added on - 17 Jun 2021

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RUNNING HEAD: Anatomy & Physiology / Health & Social care (ASTHMA)Anatomy & Physiology /Health & Social care(ASTHMA)
Anatomy & Physiology / Health & Social care (ASTHMA)1Asthma is considered to be a serious health problem all across the world. This chronic airwaydisorder affects the people of all age groups. This problem places a number of limitations on thecapability of person to carry out day- to – day activities. Asthma can even sometimes be fatal andis a chronic cause of disability. Moreover, a burden is placed on the life of an individual alongwith healthcare costs, reduced participation in social activities and in family and lostproductivity. This essay focuses on the physiological condition called asthma. Moreover, theessay also highlights the difference between the respiratory system of a patient with and withoutasthma, related anatomy and physiology, signs and symptoms of asthma, impact on other bodysystems and daily living. Also, this essay throws light on the care, treatment and monitoringrequired for a patient suffering from this condition.Asthma can be defined as a respiratory condition marked by spasm attacks in the bronchi oflungs which in turn results in difficulty in breathing. Such condition is normally connected withallergic reaction and various other sorts of hypersensitivity. All age groups are attacked byasthma but it often starts in childhood (Leigh & Marley, 2016). The frequency and severity ofasthma may vary from person to person. They may occur in an individual from hour to hour andday to day.This condition is caused as a result of inflammation if air passages in the lungs anddisturbs the sensitivity of the nerves endings in the airways which makes them get irritatedeasily. In an asthma attack, a swelling in the lining of the passages is witnessed which causes thenarrowness of the airways and reduces the in and out flow of air from the lungs (Currie & Baker,2012).The respiratory system of a patient without asthma supplies oxygen to the waste and expelswaste gases i.e. carbon dioxide from the body. It allows the exchange of gases out and into theblood such that the body cells can produce energy for normal cell functions. Large quantities ofcarbon dioxide and oxygen are carried efficiently and safely in the blood because of red cells.Hemoglobin is the most important constituent and plays an essential part in transporting carbondioxide and oxygen. Although breathing can be controlled voluntarily by the individual, it issometimes also controlled by the nervous system for the purpose of meeting the needs placedupon it. The cycle of respiration takes place approximately 15 times every minute and consists ofthree phases namely inspiration, expiration and pause. The differences in pressure inside andoutside the body generates the movement of air in and out of the lungs. Diaphragm is the
Anatomy & Physiology / Health & Social care (ASTHMA)2essential muscle use at the time of breathing which is frequently assisted by neck, intercostalmuscles and abdominal muscles. This is the place where expansion of lungs take place in air andthen contract for the purpose of expelling it. The respiratory system of a patient suffering fromasthma is affected as bronchioles (small airways) become swollen, inflamed and narrowed(constricted) and there is excess production of the mucus which creates difficulties in carrying airin and out of the lungs. The main aim of a respiratory system is perform the function ofproviding oxygen to various tissues and removing carbon dioxide. There is a possibility for therespiratory system of a person suffering from asthma that this key goal is not realized (Vries,2011).Theanatomy and physiology of asthma provides that during an asthma attack, increased mucusretention, inflammation and smooth muscle spasm results in constriction of airways in the lungsof the patient. In response to a stimulus, these are the automatic actions. Dust, smoke andheightened stress can even cause the variation in the stimulus and the increased levels of cortisol,dopamine and adrenaline. In normal cases, nerves belonging to pulmonary plexus gets activatedonly when a great stimulation represents a threat. Neurological mechanism also called“threshold” controls this where a specified degree of stimulation is necessary before sending themessage. No message is sent in cases where the stimulation is inadequate and is also called afailed initiation. A number of failed initiations ultimately have the effect of nerve sensitization.This means that in future, an action potential can be generated with less stimulation (Kabra,2013).The respiratory system of an asthma patient suffers from greater sensitivity to environmentalirritants in comparison with non- asthmatic people. The airways become narrow when they comein contact with a trigger resulting in difficulty in breathing. There is a severe attack on bronchialtubes in the process as lung tissue and air sacs are not involved. The narrowness in the respiratorairway is caused due to bronchospasm, inflammation and hyperactivity. During inflammation,mucus deposition results in swelling in the airways. Bronchospasm further narrows therespiratory airways. Inflammation leads to damage in the tissues and get dropped into theairways causing narrowing.The respiratory system is affected by asthma. Therefore, there is a difference in the respiratorysystem of a patient with and without asthma. Asthma causes the air ways to swell by way of
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