Artificial Intelligence.

Added on - 20 Sep 2019

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Artificial IntelligenceAbstractArtificial Intelligence (AI) is the machine intelligence enabling machines to solve problems andthink or act like a human. AI is compared with the intelligence of human being AI isincomparable with human intelligence, though it can be implemented through a person in dailylives to help them with the difficult assignments as people face issue with consistently gooddecision making. The decision making is employed in few AI fields like that in medicines,robotics or flight controllers. The present study covers the aspects of AI and its uses in day today lives.IntroductionThe technological advancement is occurring at increasing pace, and people are craving for moreand more sophisticated technology. Artificial intelligence is amalgamate concept of computerscience and engineering to develop the intelligent machine system to make them solve problemsin a human manner. It is an academic field which focusses on development of intelligence. JohnMcCarthy coined AI as a science and engineering for the development of intelligent machines in1955. Alan Turing, another mathematics genius advocated for a test called as Turing test whichis named after him. This test conducted by a human judge defined as the machines ability toshow intelligence. The work is done through the creation of software program with an algorithmto mimic the functioning of the human brain using computation power of computers (McCarthy,1989).Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Systems
AI is the application developed for the machine to imitate the cognitive skills of human brain likelearning, problem-solving, etc. AI is an outcome of computer revolution through which thesystems were constructed to behave intellectually, think rationally and have the ability respond tothe environmental factors in a real-time manner. AI systems outperform scientists andresearchers in the way or thinking and performance (Poo et al., 2016). The following graphshows the number software projects by Google that uses AI (Figure 1).Figure 1:Use of AI by Google (Source: Google)AI is not a new concept, and even in ancient times, humans have always been fascinated for theinvention of intelligent machinery. Therefore, researchers have been putting their effort todevelop the systems and programs to mimic human brain and evolve machines with the ability toperform similarly to the human. It was only in the last century some fruitful inventions tookplace which made AI a plausible reality. The very first benchmark was started by Alan Turingwho is widely acknowledged for the development of a code breaking machine during the worldwar. After that, the concept of AI has come a long way from the old days. Scientists have beenencouraged to develop AI systems because of the development of the computers. The innovationwas accessible for a long time and stimulate the intelligent behavior. The knowledge and
hypothesis achieved through AI will set the trend for future generation. Several diversemethodologies and strategies are being utilized for the AI development. There are different twoapproaches used in the development of AI one is bottom-up, and other is top-down (Itti andBorji, 2015). The bottom-up approach is the method of achieving AI by constructing anelectronic replica of the human brain while the top-down way is carried by mimicking the humanbrain behavior by developing different computer programs. The idea behind the development ofAI is to solve large problems of the world.AI has changed the outlook of gaming, business, medicine, academia, weather forecasting, flightcontrollers, etc. There is an example of game playing activity about Chess. The chess basedengine was designed for playing against a human player. The advantage of such system is it canperform millions of calculations for a possible move in seconds which is impossible for humans.It is verifiable that the execution and consolidation of AI have obtained more remarkable effectsinto individuals' lives along with various businesses which have been benefitted from suchdevelopment. As an example, military deploys the robots to fight the inaccessible areas whichcould cause damage to the army personnel's life.There are certain differences in human and artificial intelligence like a human can perceivepatterns while machines perceive only set of data and rules. A human can store and recall data bypatterns while machines do it by search algorithms. People can identify the distorted informationor images whereas machines can’t do it properly.The advantages of Artificial IntelligenceThere are several benefits of using AI with the most fundamental ones being cost reduction,agility, adaptability, dependability, sturdiness, and duplication. The cost can be reduced through
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