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Running header: APPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCHAPPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCH/COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees][Institutional Affiliation(s)]
2APPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCHIntroductionIt is now arguable among sociologist and anthropologists than ever the extent to which muscleshave become a fundamental aspect of masculine in the Western culture. In an attempt to achievethis muscular physique, men are found to must have gone numerous and straining work thatleaves their bodies subjected to physical activities and engagements[ CITATION Gar15 \l 1033 ].This makes leavesmuscles to be linked to such activities as exercise and sports. Nevertheless,even with this in the minds of most of the men who may be interested in developing theirmuscularity, a significant number of men are found to abhor physical activity.This can be attributed to a very bad experience they might have had during childhood, or evenhigh levels of commitment among other men hence do not find enough time to engagethemselves in physical activity[ CITATION Joh09 \l 1033 ]. Such men often get themselves at thecenters of battles in which their conscience has to constantly struggle with itself in a bid to makea decision not toengage in exercise. This, unfortunately, is associated with criticisms andnegative social regards which they have to bear their consequences. At early ages, boys areintroduced to the benefits of muscularity and made to feel that they would suffer should theyrefuse to accept the responsibility to develop manly physique[ CITATION Car131 \l 1033 ].Muscular boys normally receive a warm reception among their peers and are in most caseslauded by the Western culture making them develop a positive self-concept.Literature reviewAustralia has managed to maintain her reputation for aggressive masculinity despite having lostits outstanding image as a bushranger frontier as it evolved into a dominantly urban society.Since the birth of the country more than 200 years ago, it has rooted its ideology on sexism that
3APPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCHis maintained to date[ CITATION Hen092 \l 1033 ]. This ideology led to the emergence of feministcrusades that came out strongly to fight and advocate for the rights and space of the women inthe Australian society. It is during such crusades in the 1970s that Greer wrote about theliberation of women and calling on the woman to help in the rescue of men from what shetermed the perversities of their own polarization.Besides the perception that Australian men have for the women, they also have a differentperception for their male counterparts[ CITATION Nic101 \l 1033 ]. The Australian history of alonely,womanless and in most cases the dangerous life of the bush forms the foundation uponwhich the tradition of mateship rests. It is believed that any pair of males who would live in thebush for a long time and to the tune of mutuality would end up to the point of homosexuality.This is as documented by Robert Hughes in one of his writings in which he states, “The feelingsof reliance on one’s mate would lie forever at the heart of masculine behavior in Australia.”Wars in South Africa, Vietnam, and Korea, are among the other factors that are believed to havefacilitated such a sense of masculinity and the mateship idea[ CITATION Gar15 \l 1033 ].Thematic analysis as a technique used in qualitative dataThe development of thematic analysis was necessitated by the challenge associated with theanalysis of qualitative data derived from research. Through thematic analysis, data that isseemingly unrelated can be analyzed in such a way that provides a sequential gain of knowledgeregarding a situation, person, group, interaction, a culture or even an organization. Whereasthematic analysis is that much of importance, not so much has been documented aboutit[ CITATION Joh09 \l 1033 ].
4APPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCHIt is used when there is need to frame a problem. It is useful in the narrowing down abroad to the point of discovery of the patterns and sequence followed by a specific researchquestion. Through thematic analysis, an insight into and knowledge of the qualitative datagathered is gained. Through this method, qualitative researchers find it possible to establish anin-depth appreciation for the situation or group for which they are doing the research. Broadpatterns can easily be determined and more extensive research and analysis conducted with thethematic analysis in the distillation of data[ CITATION Jam09 \l 1033 ].Thematic analysis has been found to be very inductive in nature since it does not giveroom for the researchers to impose or insert their own predetermined themes but instead get suchthemes from the data being analyzed. From the established findings, the researchers are then ableto validate the themes through statistical analysis. Thematic analysis may include part ofpositivism, phenomenology, grounded theory and interpretivism depending on the researchcontext. The process of thematic analysis begins with data collection from the source, followedby coding, validation of the codes, and identification of the themes and then finally consolidationof information[ CITATION Cha092 \l 1033 ].Description of the intervieweesJason is a 32-year old man born in Manchester and spent part of her childhood in SouthAfrica. He lost his English-speaking accent while in South Africa and had challenges tracking inthe back while he was back in the United Kingdom. He spent most of his time with the twinsister during his childhood. He was highly tempered and was easily pissed off hence maintainedquietness most of the times while in school. He was once accused of being gay due to his matewith whom he was very close. He kept neither his sister nor his father of the frustrations and