Developmental Psychology - Assignment

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYEvaluate the evidence that attachments in early childhood influence the formation ofrelationships in adolescence and adulthood.Name of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYIn a journal, which is published in 2013,Ainsworth(1973)and Bowlby(1969), putforwardattachment as an intense and sustaining inner bond that links one person towithovernow and then. This affectionate bond starts developing since infancy because the very firstrelationship that a baby forms set a track for its way in which the individual will relate toother people through the rest of his/her life. According to the attachment psychologists, theprior relationships that a baby forms with the caregivers have an impact on the relationshipsthey will form in their future. However,from thecontinuity hypothesis the ideais clear thatthere exists uniformity between theadvancedemotional experiences, the future relationshipsand the attachment types of the child, which is reflected in their later relationships (Lamb,2013). Therefore, the aim of this essay is to evaluate the evidence, which states thatattachments in early childhood influence the formation of relationships in adolescence andadulthood.In 1970, Ainsworth came up with three attachment styles, which mainly concludedthat, these styles of attachments are the outcome of the early interactions of the baby withtheir mother or caregiver (Schimmenti & Bifulco, 2015).In secure attachment,the childrenwho are securely attached can be calmed by figure of attachment when they are upset. Babiesprogresses with a secure attachment when they find that their caregiver is attentive as well asthoughtful to their signals and acknowledge their needs correctly. Such children usually growup as a confident person and even in their growing age, they have the trust that theirattachment figures are there like a safe base for them to investigate their surroundings andcan come to their attachment figures when they need them, especially in the times of distress(Karreman & Vingerhoets, 2012).Another type is Ambivalent attachment stylealso calledinsecure resistant where the child is found to have taken a doubtful behavioral style for theirclose figure. The baby is found to have revealing a clingy as well as dependent behavior.These types of children cannot gain any emotions of security from the close figures thus; are
2DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYunable to investigate the environment as they find it very difficult to leave behind theirattachment figures.Lastly,avoidant attachment, children who are insecure avoidant do notfamiliarize to their attachment figures when they are exploring their environment. Thesetypes of children are mainly found to be independent of the attachment figure physically aswell as emotionally. Thus, when caregiver is rejecting the child or insensitive to their needsthen the children grow up with avoidant attachment style. These children never come up totheir attachment figures at the time of distress because most of the times the attachmentfigures are not available at the times of need (Li & Chan, 2012).Madigan et al., (2013), has stated that insecure attachment in early childhood with themother or their caregivers are associated with following relationships that are reflectedthrough their internalizing behaviors. Kochanska and Sanghag (2013) have stated that earlyattachment of a child not only affects their relationships in the future but also affects theirbehavior. This research shows the bonds among a child’s attachment security with theirparents are evaluated in strange situations with each of the guardian at around 15months. Ithas been observed that children who are ‘double secure’ that means having attachment withboth parents are reported to have more issues and they were also assessed by their teachers ashaving more manifested issues than those who seems to be secure with only one parent(Kochanska and Sanghag, 2013).Fraley et al., (2013),Ainsworth’s study further found a linkbetween the attachment styles of the adults and their memory of the parenting style that theyreceived in their infancy stage.Simpson et al., in his research as found in the journal ofadulthood Koepke and Denissen (2012), stated that the research has been conducted over 25years evaluating participants in four important features, which are infancy, early childhood,adolescence and adulthood. The result reflected that those children who were surely attachedas infants were marked as having increased social competence. Moreover, socially competentchildren at the age of 6-8years were found to have close relationships with their peers at the
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