Applications of Nanoparticles in Biomedical Sciences
Added on -2019-09-16
This article discusses the applications of nanoparticles in biomedical sciences, including Plasmonic Nano Bubble nanosurgery, carbon nanotubes, graphene quantum dots, and more. It also covers the advantages of nanoparticle biosensors and their applications in the field of biology and medicine.
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ANSWER 1: The usage of nano gold in chemotherapy is effective to some extent only as the nano particles of gold are attached to the cells of cancer rather than a robust cell because the laserpulse might damage the robust tissues. The nano gold particles help in detecting the clusters of cancer cells which are left after the result and can be further turned into the tumor or recurring ofthe cell. The method of nano gold particles shows that whether the tissues are required to removethe cells or not. The removal of residual cells of cancer with the nano gold has been recognized as the new kind of surgery (Panyala, N.R., Peña-Méndez, E.M. and Havel, J., 2009). Therefore, the surgery is known as Plasmonic Nano Bubble nanosurgery. The parallel among the nanotube and asbestos cannot be ignored, and this mainly give rise to the disease of Mesothelioma, and this affects the body for many years. There were various concerns about these two in the manufacturing and construction industry in 1898 but they all were disregarded because of the benefits of asbestos and the companies continued its usage. The stability of graphene can be explained by the tight packing of carbon atoms along with sp2 hybridization where s, px and py orbitals combine to form σ-bond. Whereas the pz electron forms the π-bond. π-band and π∗-bands are formed by hybridization of π-bonds. These bands provided electronic properties to graphene with half-filled band permitting the free movements of electrons. ANSWER 2:A layer of carbon atoms forms graphite. The atoms in these layers are arranged in the forms of hexagons, and the carbon atoms are bounded covalently to other carbon atoms. The layers are further seen to be bound weakly through weak Van der Waals type interaction. Carbon nanotubes
are nothing but curved graphene sheet. A carbon-nanotube is made of carbon is tube-shaped witha diameter measuring in the scale of the nanometer. A nanometer is 10,000 times smaller as compared to a human hair or one-billionth of a meter. Due to intense bonding between its atoms, the carbon nanotubes are considered to be highly unique and have extreme aspect ratios. The carbon nanotubes are categorized on the basis of walls and are termed as single-walled or SWNTor multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT). SWNT have 1-nanometer diameter and are a roll of one-atom-thick layers of graphite. This graphene sheet is wrapped in the form of the seamless cylinder. The MWNT are simply a collection of multiple rolled graphene sheets and may range from various tubes and walls from an inner and outer tube. One tube is held to another tube by interatomic forces (Carbon Nanotubes, 2016).The structure of these carbon nanotubes is seen to be specified by using vector (n,m) defining theprocess of rolling up of graphene. For example for the production of nanotubes having its indicesat (6,3), the sheet has to be rolled in order to superimpose atom at (0,0) with the one at (6,3).
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