Assignment - Natural Language Processing

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Assignment 2- Bio inspired AIAssessment FeedbackSpecific aspects of the assignment thatthe marker likes:Specific aspects of the assignment that needmore work:Tutor’s Signature:sjtDate:Grade:NB.By entering yourname(s) andstudent ID(s) you are asserting that this submission isentirely your own individual (or group)Natural Language processing
IntroductionNatural Language processing is one the discipline ofcomputer science,artificial intelligence,andcomputational linguisticsthat concentrate on augmenting and concentrating systems thatmajorly allow computers to communicate with human beings people using everyday language.Example of such languages include French, Portuguese, and English etc. (Christopher D.Manning, 1989) Natural languages has advanced from generation to generation and it is difficultto explain with straightforward rules. Below is a simple illustration on natural languageprocessing.LanguageComputerLanguageFrom the above illustration, we are able to conclude that NLP is all about Natural languageunderstanding and generation.Advancement that are establish on natural language processing are becoming more widespreaddaily with the new technologies coming up due to the changes in our modern digital world . Avery good example of such include tablets, phones and mini computers that are able to greatlyprovide predictive text and handwriting recognition .Web search initiators provide access toinformation that are interlocked in unstructured text.Basically machine translation gives insight on how to retrieve texts written in Portuguese andread them in English. By yielding more advanced technological natural human-machineinterfaces, and more superior access to stored information, language processing is generally nowat the Centre our multilingual world.
Background and TheoryNatural language processing systems involve having inputs as words or rather sentences andthen evaluating the same to produce outputs which are a well-structured representations of thisstring of words. A natural language understanding system used as an interface to a databaseusually accept questions in English that correlates with type and kind of data stored in thedatabase.The first use of computers to manipulate natural languages is dated back in the 1950s withvarious attempts to develop an automatic system to translate Russian to English and vice versa.(Nitin Indurkhya, 2010) These systems failed since they did require a human Russian-Englishtranslator to be able to pre-edit the Russian and post-edit the English. Based on World War IIcode breaking techniques, individual words was taken in isolation and scrutinize theirdefinition in a dictionary but They were of little importance practically .Generally most stories arising from these systems cite many incorrectly translated words andphrases translations .Examples include the phrase "hydraulic ram"translated as "water goat".(Christopher D. Manning, 1989)During the 1960s natural language processing systems started to review sentence structure butthis led to a weird manner in which they were presented. The basic of this systems were based onpattern matching and less derived meaning representations.various sophisticated developments in natural language processing was more evident in the early& mid 1970s as systems begin to use more unspecific approaches and steps to formallydescribe the rules of the language they worked with. LUNARwas able to provide an Englishinterface to a database that put together details of moon rock samples. (Church, n.d.) SHRDLUinterfaced with a virtual robot in a world of blocks, had a capacity of accepting Englishcommands to move the blocks around and provide answer questions about the state of the world.Since that period, several parallel development of advanced ideas and technologies that formedthe basis for modern natural language processing systems. (ayes & Carbonell, 1983)
Various research undertaken in computer linguistics has provided greater understanding andknowledge of grammar construction and basically artificial Intelligence researchers have led tomore effective and convenient mechanisms for analysis of natural languages and for representingmeanings. Thus natural language processing systems has now form a solid ground of linguisticstudy and use highly sophisticated semantic representations.In the 1990s natural language systems have majorly focused on specific subject with the aim ofproviding a general purpose language understanding ability but there was much success.Essentially major objective in contemporary language processing research is to come up withsystems which work with complete threads of discourseDiscussionTechniques applied in general to Natural Language Processing.Natural Language Processing is basically a field of diverse computing that focused on theinteraction between human languages and computers. Several challenges are associated withNatural language processing and among them arenatural language understanding, that is,equipping computers to extract meaning from human or natural language input, and othersinvolvenatural language generation.Natural language interaction with computers has long been a vital goal of Artificial Intelligenceboth for what it can tell us about intelligence in general and for its practical utility, data bases,software packages. (ayes & Carbonell, 1983)
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