Assignment Item Cover Sheet

Added on - 29 Apr 2020

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ASSIGNMENT/ASSESSMENT ITEM COVER SHEETStudent Name:FIRST NAMEFAMILY/LASTNAMEStudent Number:Email:Course CodeCourse Title(Example)(Example)Campus of Study:(eg Callaghan, Ourimbah, Port Macquarie)Assessment Item Title: Due Date/Time:Tutorial Group (If applicable):Word Count (If applicable):Lecturer/Tutor Name:Extension Granted:Yes No Granted Until:Please attach a copy of your extension approvalNB: STUDENTS MAY EXPECT THAT THIS ASSIGNMENT WILL BE RETURNED WITHIN 3 WEEKS OF THE DUE DATE OFSUBMISSIONIntro to University321DCBA4
I declare that this assessment item is my own work unless otherwise acknowledged and is in accordance with the University’sStudent Academic Integrity Policy(http://www.newcastle.edu.au/about-uon/governance-and-leadership/policy-library/document?RecordNumber=D09/1899P)I certify that this assessment item has not been submitted previously for academic credit in this or any other course. I certify that Ihave not given a copy or have shown a copy of this assessment item to another student enrolled in the course.I acknowledge that the assessor of this assignment may, for the purpose of assessing this assignment:Reproduce this assessment item and provide a copy to another member of the Faculty; and/orCommunicate a copy of this assessment item to a plagiarism checking service (which may then retain a copy of the item on itsdatabase for the purpose of future plagiarism checking).Submit the assessment item to other forms of plagiarism checking.I certify that any electronic version of this assessment item that I have submitted or will submit is identical to this paper version.Turnitin ID:(ifapplicable)Signature:_____________________________________________________________Date:___________________Please tick box if applicableStudents within the Faculty of Business and Law, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment and the School of NursingandMidwifery:I verify that I have completed the online Academic Integrity Module and adhered to its principlesStudentswithintheSchoolofEducation:"I understand that a minimum standard of correct referencing and academic literacy is required to pass all written assignments inthe School of Education;and I have read and understood the School of EducationCourse Outline Policy Supplement,which includesimportant information related to assessment policies and procedures.DATE
Table of ContentsIntroduction and sources of exposure...................................................................................................................2Effects of hydrogen cyanide on human health......................................................................................................2Legislations, Standards, Codes of Practice...........................................................................................................3Occupational Exposure limits for hydrogen cyanide............................................................................................5Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics......................................................................................................................6Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................8References............................................................................................................................................................9
Introduction and sources of exposureHydrogen cyanide is a compound that is highly flammable and poisonous; it is found in liquid formand is a precursor of many other compounds. It is spontaneously absorbed and transferred after inhalation, todifferent parts of the body. It has fatal implications in the human body; it can drastically affect the working ofthe body by exposure to any part irrespective of its location. Hydrogen cyanide is highly toxic in many ways.It has several neurological effects that can lead to permanent impairment of organs and even death. Thedifferent sources of exposure are stated below:Inhalation-HCN is readily absorbed by the lungs. Cyanide containing dust particles produce toxicityupon inhalation.HCN creates localized damage that manifests in the form of pulmonary congestion,dryness and burning sensation in throat, by acting as a lung irritant. Lethal doses are around 0.3mg/lHCN. 0.2mg/l (181 ppm) is considered as a lethal dose after 10 minutes of exposure. Owing to thepresence of larger ratio of lung surface area to body weight, children are found to receive larger dosesof the gas.Oral route-Solutions containing HCN are absorbed form the alimentary canal and are corrosiveandfatalin nature.Severe intoxication is produced at higher doses. Lower doses exhibit symptoms at aslower rate. The stomach gets inflamed and ulcer is formed.Dermal route-It is also absorbed through uninjured skin1.This causes systemic toxicity within thebody. The absorption rate increases with increase in pH, due to unionized HCN. Breathingabnormalities like plasma extravasations, Cheyne Stokes respiration, and peripheral vasoconstrictionoccur. The person can even reach a state of coma.Effects of hydrogen cyanide on human healthToxicity of hydrogen cyanide is higher than any other compound. The symptoms associated with itsexposure to the body occur rapidly after contact or inhalation. It adversely affects the mechanism ofrespiration by blocking the oxidative respiration, and leads to hypoxia.Immediate symptoms on acuteexposure affect the tissues in the central nervous system (CNS). Tachycardia and tachypnoea also occur due1Ballantyne BR. The forensic diagnosis of acute cyanide poisoning. Forensic toxicology (B. Ballantyne, ed.). 2013 Oct 22:99-113.
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