Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Added on - 21 Jul 2020

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Cover PageAssessment 1: Short Answer AssessmentAssessment 1: Short Answer Assessment____________________The following criteria will be marked on each of the sections below:1.Demonstrate an understanding of the research on characteristics, history, myths,and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.2.Analyse the impact of historical changes, myths and societal expectations onindividuals on the autism spectrum of their families.3.Present information in a clear and organised manner, providing support from appropriatesources.What you’re doing well ...What you need to address next time ...Overall Mark:/40HighDistinction CreditPassFailDistinction
EDGS951 Autism and LearningAssessment 1 – Short Answer (40 points)1.Myths – 6 marksPlease list 6 myths about autism spectrum disorder and then refute these myths byrestatingthem so theypresent the facts and current knowledge in this area.Please limit these restatements to only 1-2 sentences. Youdo notneed to provide a reference for your answers in this section.1. Myth:Vaccines cause Autism.Restatement:In the 1990’s Gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield MD studied the possible linkbetween vaccine viruses and intestinal tissues causing bowel cancer,these vaccines were also associated with Autism. Studies were carriedout over the next 12 years and it was found to be untrue and thatWakefield had in fact been paid by a lawyer seeking to file lawsuitsagainst vaccine manufacturers. Wakefield was banned from practicingmedicine in Britain.2. Myth:Autism is caused by bad parenting.Restatement :Bruno Bettelheim believed that children developed Autism from cold,unemotional mothers which were given the term “refrigerator mothers”.Bettelheim’s work was not evidence based and he had no training inpsychiatry or medicine.3. Myth:Autism is an epidemic.Restatement:Autism diagnosis has changed, and we have a better understanding of thecondition, we have a wider range of characteristics in the AutismSpectrum. parents and professionals use these criteria to now identifyindividuals at a younger age.There is little evidence at this stage to saythat Autism is increasing.4. Myth:Individuals with Autism are more aggressive.Restatement:Individuals on the ASD may shout and hit out but no more than any other child
usually this aggression is out of frustration to communicate their needs or to alack of alternative skills or even difficulties in dealing in their sensoryenvironment. It is unusualfor an individual with Autism to intentionallycause harm to another person.5. Myth:Autism is a childhood condition that can be cured or outgrownRestatement:Autism currently has no known cure, but with appropriate interventionchildren can learn many of the skills they need to have a full andsuccessful life. Through this early intervention of skills individuals canbecome valued people in society, but this also relies on education aboutASD that it is not a disability but acondition when addressed these individuals can lead happy andproductive lives.6. Myth:Autism is a behavioral and mental health disorderRestatement:Autism is a is a neurodevelopmental condition with the onset before theage of 3. First known as “infantile Schizophrenia” these individuals werecared for in institutions. In the early 1940’s Leo Kannner studied severalindividualswith Autism and found that the brain develops differently totypically developing children, affecting many areas of developmentincluding social, behavioral and communication.1. Myths-CriteriaHighDistinctionDistinctionCreditPassFailMarkMarks5.25-6.004.5-5.004.00-4.253.00-3.750.00-2.75Demonstrate anunderstanding of theresearch on the historyand diagnosis of autismspectrum disorder andanalyse the impact of thishistory for individuals onthe autism spectrum.Demonstrates avery high levelof knowledgeandunderstanding ofallconcepts/issues.Demonstrates ahigh level ofknowledge andunderstandingof allconcepts/issues.Demonstrates asatisfactorylevel ofknowledge andunderstandingof allconcepts/issues.Demonstratesa limited levelof knowledgeandunderstandingof all concepts/issuesDemonstratesextremelylimited to nolevel ofknowledge ofallconcepts/issues./6Comments
**For the rest of this assessment please utilize APA 6thstyle for referencing.It is suggested that you theresources on referencing and writing, which can be found in the Assessment folder on the Moodle site.2.History and Diagnosis of ASD (8 marks)a. Pleaselist two peoplewho were important in shaping the history of ASD. Describethe role they playedandtheimpact they had on research and practice in autism spectrum disorder. Please limit your responseto 2-3sentences. Please provideat least one reference for your responses. (2 marks)1) Leo Kanner was a doctor in the 1940’s who studied a group of children thought to be mentally retarded(NAC 2009). Kanner observed that they did not socially interact, had difficulty with speech, had repetitivebehaviors (NAC 2009) and did not like change. This behavior had been thought to be caused or linked to badparenting. From this observation Kanner was able to identify that the behavior was more likely to be aneurodevelopmental caused by genetic and environmental factors in the individual’s life (NAC 2009).2) In the same decade Hans Asperger was also studying a group of children he also observed the socialinteraction with their peers (NAC 2009). These children however did not have communication difficulties andspoke early in childhood (NAC 2009). These children showed independence with day to day functions and didnot have low cognitive abilities (NAC 2009). Asperger also noted that these children quite bright in areas ofinterest and could retain information. Unlike Kanner, Apergers research was not recognised for three decadesafter.b. Please discuss the history of autism, explaining how the changing diagnostic criteria, as reflected in theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), has shaped our understanding of autism.Please provideat leastone referenceto support your statement. Please limit your discussion tono morethan1paragraphs. (3 marks)When Dr Kanner first studied children in the 1940’s it was mostly through observation and the criteria for thediagnosis of Autism (NAC 2009) was not published until the 1980’s in the DSM-III and was originally namedInfantile Autism (NAC 2009). In 1987 when the DSM-III-R was published the diagnosis was known as AutisticDisorder. In 1994 there were major changes to the diagnosis criteria which created the DSM-IV know as ASDwhich included the sub-categories of Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, PDD-NOS, Rhett’s Disorder and
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