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Building Management Systems Design and Implementation

   

Added on  2020-03-01

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BMS for Building Services 1
BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERING
Name
Course
Professor
University
City/state
Date
Building Management Systems Design and Implementation_1

BMS for Building Services 2
Table of Contents
Task 1.1: Building functions managed using BMS.............................................................3
MVAC/HVAC system.................................................................................................. 4
Lighting.................................................................................................................. 4
Electrical appliances.................................................................................................. 4
Plumbing system....................................................................................................... 5
Security systems control.............................................................................................. 5
Access control.......................................................................................................... 5
Fire services system................................................................................................... 5
Lifts and escalators control.......................................................................................... 5
Task 1.2: Building functions performed by BMS system and components...............................5
Scheduling/planning................................................................................................... 5
Monitoring.............................................................................................................. 5
Controlling and automation.......................................................................................... 6
Optimizing............................................................................................................... 6
Data logging and recording of performance history/trend....................................................6
Reporting................................................................................................................ 6
Task 1.3: Reasons to use BMS installation in a building......................................................6
Maintain desired indoor environment.............................................................................. 7
Preventive maintenance............................................................................................... 7
Reduce manpower for system control and monitoring..........................................................7
Improve energy efficiency............................................................................................ 7
Energy management................................................................................................... 7
Sustainable building strategy........................................................................................ 7
Reduce operating costs............................................................................................... 8
Improve safety.......................................................................................................... 8
Task 2: Functions of BMS hardware..................................................................................8
Task 2.1: Control functions that BMS hardware performs..................................................8
Occupancy time settings.............................................................................................. 8
Outside influence....................................................................................................... 8
PID control.............................................................................................................. 8
Duty cycle............................................................................................................... 8
Night cycle and purge................................................................................................. 9
Holiday programme................................................................................................... 9
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BMS for Building Services 3
Optimum on/off......................................................................................................... 9
Operation specification and status................................................................................. 9
Task 2.2: Fixed BMS hardware components operation.......................................................9
Task 2.3: Techniques used in BMS fixed hardware system installation and cable wiring.........11
Installation planning................................................................................................. 11
Cable wiring methods............................................................................................... 11
Task 3: BMS software and installation.............................................................................12
Task 3.1: Control logic for BMS installation design..........................................................12
Startup procedure.................................................................................................... 13
Shutdown procedure................................................................................................. 14
Task 3.2: BMS control point schedules, schematic drawings, controls installation and logic
drawings.................................................................................................................. 15
Task 3.3: BMS equipment and component lists, specifications and schedules for installations...18
Task 3.4: BMS software procedures for control strategies.................................................21
BMS software statement............................................................................................ 21
Point editor............................................................................................................ 22
Programme sentences............................................................................................... 22
Task 3.5: BMS installations commissioning procedures for chiller plant control....................22
Task 4: BMS installation for performance optimization.......................................................24
Task 4.1: Use of BMS installations to get building performance reports for management review
.............................................................................................................................. 24
Task 4.2: BMS settings for modifying and adjusting BMS installations for control.................25
Task 4.3: Planned preventive maintenance (PPM) strategies based on obtained BMS data and
reports.................................................................................................................... 26
Task 4.4: Strategies for optimizing energy efficiency management using BMS data and reports27
Temperature settings................................................................................................ 27
Operation hours...................................................................................................... 28
Optimum on/off....................................................................................................... 28
Natural lighting and ventilation................................................................................... 28
Preventive maintenance schedule.................................................................................28
Equipment statuses.................................................................................................. 28
References.................................................................................................................. 29
Task 1: BMS characteristics and building management and control requirements
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Task 1.1: Building functions managed using BMS
BMS can be used to manage different functions in a building. Figure 1 below shows
general functions that can be managed by a BMS system
Figure 1: Functions that can be managed by BMS
Below are explanations of building functions that can be managed by BMS:
MVAC/HVAC system
BMS can be used to monitor, control and optimize performance of all MVAC
components to ensure circulation of good air quality and thermal comfort in the building (Wong
& Li, 2009). It can measure building conditions, including air flow rate, humidity and
temperature, then activate the relevant MVAC components to bring indoor air quality and
thermal comfort to the desired level (Greener Live Performances, (n.d.)). For the
university’s academic building, the following MVAC functions can be managed by BMS: chiller
plant and its associated components, library floors’ air system, ventilation in various spaces
including car park and public corridors, thermostat control, fun coil units in various areas such as
classrooms, public corridors laboratories and open space, primary air unit, temperature profile
and data logging.
Lighting
BMS can use occupancy sensors to control operation of luminaries by switching lights
on/off (AutomatedBuildings.com, 2010); control light dimming based on daylight intensity;
switch specific lights, such as external security lights, on/off based on their duty schedule
(Modern Building Services, 2016); and maintain logged data and energy consumption history
of all lighting fixtures. This helps in reducing energy consumption and wastage (Dilouie,
2009).
Electrical appliances
BMS can be used to automatically control, monitor and optimize energy consumption
and performance of all electrical appliances (Wang, 2010), including: desktop computers,
laptops, scanners, projectors, printers, photocopiers, dishwashers, televisions, coffee makers, etc.
The system can keep records of voltage, current and power factor of all appliances in the
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building. This helps in identifying maintenance needs and reducing energy wastage and usage
through automation (Makarechi & Kangari, 2011).
Plumbing system
BMS can be used to monitor and control operation and conditions of various plumbing
system components, such as pump, solar heating system, water fixtures, etc. It can also be used
to initiate activities such as hygiene toile flushing, thermal disinfections and circulation of fresh
air in washrooms on a regular basis.
Security systems control
BMS can use security components such as motion detectors and CCTV cameras to
monitor motions inside and around the building. It can keep records of door access contacts,
watchman tours and any burglar attempts. The BMS system can be designed to activate security
or burglar alarms if there is any detection of security breach.
Access control
BMS system can be used to restrict building access by requiring login credentials before
a person can be allowed or denied access into different areas or rooms within the building. Using
its built-in security features, BMS can ensure that doors open only when the login credentials are
correct or else they remain closed thus denying entry or exit.
Fire services system
BMS can be used to monitor presence of fire, smoke or any toxic gases in the building
and activate the respective alarm system depending on the amount of toxic gas or intensity of
fire. It does so using smoke detectors, heat detectors or fire detectors.
Lifts and escalators control
BMS can control operation of lifts and escalators depending on their duty schedule and
presence/absence of occupants. It can control speed of operation depending on the floors the
passengers are going to. During non-peak hours, the system ensures homing of lifts to ground
floor and switches of ventilation fans and lighting.
In general, BMS is used to manage building functions that consume energy and water.
The BMS system ensures that these functions operate within their design parameters and user
requirements, consume minimal energy or water and are maintained appropriately to avoid
damage or overconsumption of energy or water (Gao, et al., 2014).
Task 1.2: Building functions performed by BMS system and components
BMS system and components can perform a variety of functions. Some of these include:
Scheduling/planning
BMS system can created duty schedules for different components in the building. This
implies that the components will only operate during their duty cycle. At the start of duty cycle,
BMS system automatically turns on the component and turns it off at the end of the duty cycle.
An example of this is outdoor lighting. BMS system can create a schedule for external lights so
that it switches then on in the evening (say 6.00 pm) and switches then off in the morning (say
7.00 am). The lights will operate within this cycle unless turned on or off manually by the
building manager, operator or users.
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Monitoring
BMS system monitors operation of various building systems and gather information
about their energy or water consumption and performance efficiency (Lewis, et al., 2010).
This helps in determining the amount of energy or water consumed by the system and whether it
is operating at its design efficiency or if it has any defects that require repair.
Controlling and automation
This is a very important function of BMS system and components. The system controls
operation of different building components by ensuring a balance between building conditions
and occupant needs (Kumar, et al., 2013). When conditions in the building are not providing
the desired thermal comfort and air quality, BMS system is able to actuate relevant components
so as to adjust conditions to the setpoints (ClimateTechWiki, 2010). For example, when
indoor temperature is high, BMS system turns on the chiller that circulates cool air into the
building thus dropping temperature to the desired range or setpoint value. The system also
optimizes start/stop time of various components. All these helps in controlling the operation of
various building systems and the amount of energy or water they consume because they only
operate when needed (Sustainable Focus, 2017).
Optimizing
BMS system optimizes performance of various building components by identifying any
defects and notifying the building operator/manager about them. This helps in repairing or
maintaining components on time, which prevents damage, unnecessary or high maintenance
costs and energy or water wastage. Optimizing also helps in improving comfort of occupants
because the components are always working at their optimal efficiency.
Data logging and recording of performance history/trend
BMS system collects and stores all data pertaining the amount of energy or water a
component consumes, history of its performance and efficiency, runtimes, downtimes, etc. This
logged data and history provides useful information about components that are efficient or less
efficient. The building operator or manager can easily retrieve the logged data and use it to
analyze various performance parameters of any component that is included in the BMS system
(Anon., 2009).
Reporting
This is a major benefit of BMS system for building managers or operators. BMS system
is able to create reports of all building components included in it. One of the main reports is
energy report. This report shows energy consumption of every electrical or electronic system in
the building. It indicates whether these systems are operating within or outside their design
specifications. For example, a BMS report can show if the amount consumed by MVAC system
is within the manufacturer’s range or not. Those operating outside their design ranges have to be
repaired, upgraded or replaced so as to reduce energy wastage. Reports are mainly used to
determine repair, maintenance, upgrade or replacement needs so as to lower energy
consumption, save money and improve safety and comfort of occupants.
Task 1.3: Reasons to use BMS installation in a building
Sustainability has become a very important issue in today’s building and construction
industry because of the industry’s environmental, economic and social. Because of technology,
many people also want to live in buildings they can control from wherever they are whenever
they want (Tariq, et al., 2012). This has made BMS installation very crucial in modern
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buildings (Schein, 2007). Below are some of the reasons why using BMS installation in
buildings is necessary.
Maintain desired indoor environment
BMS ensures that all building components operate as desired and when needed. It ensures
that MVAC system operates properly thus circulating fresh air at the setpoint temperature. This
improves thermal comfort and air quality in the building. BMS installation also ensures that
lights are switched on in occupied rooms. All these create a conducive environment for
occupants either at home or in office, which improves safety, health and productivity of
occupants (Ellis, 2011).
Preventive maintenance
BMS installation helps to monitor performance of different equipment, devices and
appliances in the building. As a result of this, BMS system is able to detect any defects or
malfunction thus notifying the building operator or manager about the same early enough to
prevent damage or inconvenience (Mohammad, et al., 2017). Once the notification is given,
the building manager/operator is able to perform the necessary repairs, upgrades or replacements.
In other words, BMS installation helps to correct problems before they occur. Additionally, BMS
installation can be designed to create a maintenance schedule for each building component,
device or appliance.
Reduce manpower for system control and monitoring
BMS system is able to monitor, control and report performance of all components
installed and used in the building. Since all these activities are done by an automated system, the
number of personnel required to manage operations of the building reduces (Pukite & Geipele,
2017). For instance, instead of hiring specialists to check defects in each individual component,
the building manager/operator uses BMS system to identify components that require
maintenance. This eliminates the staffs and time that could be needed to check maintenance
needs of these components. The building manager/operator only has to hire a technician to repair
the components but not to check defects since they are already identified.
Improve energy efficiency
As stated before, BMS installation helps to monitor and report performance of various
components. This enables preventive maintenance that helps to keep systems in their best
working conditions. When systems are operating within their design specifications, energy
efficiency increases (ICONIC Plus, 2015).
Energy management
There are various ways in which BMs installation enhances energy management. First,
BMS installation ensures that systems, appliances or equipment in the building operate only
when needed. This is achieved through duty cycles, operating hours and occupancy presence
detection (Gul & Patidar, 2015). Second, BMS installation maintains all building components
in their optimal working condition by enabling maintenance schedule and preventive
maintenance. This prevents energy losses through faulty equipment. Third, BMS installation
facilitates use of natural resources especially daylighting. The system enables dimming of lights
when there is sufficient daylighting. All these reduces energy consumption in the building.
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Sustainable building strategy
BMS installation reduces energy consumption through different approaches, some of
which have been discussed above. Reduced energy consumption means that carbon emissions
related to production and distribution of energy also reduces. This makes BMS system an
effective strategy to promote green/sustainable building (Reffat, 2010).
Reduce operating costs
BMS installation reduces energy consumption of various equipment. It also lowers
maintenance costs by repairing equipment before they get damaged. All these reduces overall
operating costs of buildings.
Improve safety
BMS installation controls access to the building and monitors are entries, exits and other
activities inside and around the building. The system restricts illegal entries or exits and notifies
relevant persons about any security breach to take necessary actions. These improves overall
security and safety of the building and its occupants (Advanced Control Corp., 2017).
Task 2: Functions of BMS hardware
Task 2.1: Control functions that BMS hardware performs
BMS hardware performs several control functions. These functions ensure that each
equipment, device or system operates within certain parameters thus providing the required
indoor comfort level or working environment at minimum energy usage and greatest efficiency.
Below are some of these control functions:
Occupancy time settings
BMS hardware sets operation of various equipment in the building based on occupancy
presence (occupancy time) because occupants significantly influence the amount of energy
consumed (Azar & Menassa, 2012). If it is an office and the working hours are from 7.00 am
to 4.00 pm, BMs hardware presets relevant equipment so that they can be operating within this
period. The same applies to access control where BMS hardware allows access to specific areas
in the building only when it is working hours.
Outside influence
BMS hardware controls effects that external factors, such as atmospheric conditions, may
have on the internal environment. For instance, when temperatures are too high outside, indoor
temperatures are also expected to rise thus compromising thermal comfort of occupants.
However, BMS hardware prevents this by switching on chiller control plant that circulates cool
fresh air throughout the building. The same applies for luminaries where in case of dark clouds
that inhibit use of natural daylighting, BMS hardware automatically switches lights on or
increases their intensity to desired levels by the occupants.
PID control
BMS hardware uses proportional, integral and derivative (PID) control to ensure uniform
performance of MVAC irrespective of fluctuating outdoor conditions or occupant needs. The
hardware monitors and controls humidity, temperature, pressure and air flow rate inside the
building maintaining desired indoor conditions irrespective of outside influence.
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