Behavioral Perspective Assignment

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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1Behavioural PerspectivebyCourse:Tutor:University:Department:30 October 2017
2Behavioural psychology is concerned with the way in which stimuli (environmentalfactors) affect response/ (observable behavior). Behaviourist perspective proposes twoprimary processes by which people learn from their stimuli; these include operant andclassical conditioning. Classical conditioning is attributed to Ivan Pavlov; a Russianpsychologist and it involves learning by association, whereas operant conditioning wasexamined by B.F. Skinner and it is associated with learning from the behavior consequences.1Classical ConditioningIvan Pavlov studied classical conditioning by examining his dogs and every time hegave them food they drooled. Also, he realized that each time he made a particular soundwhile feeding them; the dogs started salivating at the hearing of the tone, even in the absenceof food after that. He then noticed that his dogs had come to associate the sound (a neutralstimulus) with food (non-neutral stimulus). Based on his dog experiment, Pavlov termed aresponse that occurred naturally as a unconditioned response, such as salivation in the dogexperiment. Whereas, the stimulus that evoked salivation naturally as unconditioned stimuli,such as food in the dog experiment. The tone or sound that the dogs learned to relate withfood was the conditioned stimulus and salivation was the conditioned response. He furtherconcluded that the unconditioned response and the conditioned response are similar.2Operant conditioning1Skinner, B.F., 2011.About behaviorism. Vintage.2Lavond, D. and Steinmetz, J., 2012.Handbook of classical conditioning. Springer Science& Business Media.
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