Bilingualism and Its Role in Working Memory | Study

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KEY TRANSFERABLESKILLS1
Table of ContentsIS BILINGUAL ADVANTAGEOUS FOR WORKING MEMORY......................................................1INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1Researches evident in this field................................................................................................................1Benefits of bilingualism..............................................................................................................................3RATIONALE OF THE STUDY...............................................................................................................1RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................2Participants....................................................................................................................................................2Materials..........................................................................................................................................................2Methods...........................................................................................................................................................3REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................................52
IS BILINGUAL ADVANTAGEOUS FOR WORKING MEMORYINTRODUCTIONThe nervous system of a person uses to learn continuously among which experience is the majorfactor. It is evident that many types of research have been done which reflects that there is a linkbetween brain's knowledge gaining system and Bilingualism. The bilingualism refers to theability to use two languages by a single person. It is also seen that the expertise in both languagesexists in a fluctuating manner in an adult and children. This professionalism over languagecomes by opportunities acquired by a person towards languages and also the impact that mayhave on the individual by others. It is apparent that there is a close connection between a persongains the learning and his bilingualism. This relation has been explained by Green where heproposed a theory of inhibitory control. According to theory, a child starts to learn numerousthings from his social environment (Loe & Feldman (2016). It is also seen that the mental stateof children starts changing and after some time they become able to judge and predict thebehaviours which are termed as the theory of mind (ToM). There are some measures that areused for analysing the developmental pattern in ToM among which the major one is false belieftasks. The false belief tasks are based on the conceptual framework and use to develop critically(Bloch, 2013). Here, the changes occur due to some mistaken beliefs which gradually childrenlearns to differentiate. The major role in all these learnings is completely dependent onlanguages. The ToM is not possible without the use of languages. The foremost thing thatdifferentiates a human from other animals is the ability to make use of languages and understandthe views and feelings of other persons. Other scholars likeArchila-Suerte, P., & et.al., (2013)have also observed that the language plays an important role in the development of mind.Researches evident in this fieldFrom the researchers, it was found that in the case of children who are in developing age thereis a very close relationship between his mind and the ability to use language in it. Apart fromthis, many researchers have studied children who have the ability to make use of two languages.In other words, bilingualism is very common in childhood days, because of which it hasremained a topic of interest among researchers. For this various tests were organised so that thepattern of learning and the cognitive process can be analysed in both monolinguals and bilinguals(Casaponsa, Carreiras & Duñabeitia, 2014). For this, the studies were conducted where different
verbal and non-verbal tasks were arranged for testing it on monolinguals and bilinguals. Thepriority of this test was to examine the performances of both types of persons who are in theimpact of different situations of languages. From the results, it was found by the scholars thatperformance of bilinguals was poorer as compared to monolinguals in the case of verbal tasks.For instance, the in the tests of picture naming the presentation of bilingual people was slow, andthey were nit able to give accurate answers. While on the other hand, the performance ofmonolinguals was fine and their smoothness in tasks of verbal nature was far better thanbilinguals. Besides this, it was also seen that the age also has an impacting role in these tasks, butthe performance was largely dependent on conditions of task (Humphries, & et.al., 2014). All theabove factors raised a conflicting situation between two linguistic units as both were activated ona parallel basis. However, with the help of inhibitory control model, it was discovered that theseissues raising between both active units are not completely dependent on language. Because ofthis, further researches were done to find out the benefits of bilingualism(Knight & Swanwick,2013).The researches and studies conducted to find advantages of bilingualism were related withvarious kinds of tasks that were based on different conditions. They found that, in the case ofStroop and Flanker tasks, the time taken by bilinguals in giving reaction was less. In a case ofinhibition tasks, performance was dependent on age factors. The younger age people were able toperform better as compared to older ones in Simon, Flanker and Stroop tasks (Lauchlan, Parisi &Fadda, 2013). The results of these tests were somewhat inconsistent as the persons used for thesample were of different ages and number of trials done to test them was also alleged. Later on,many scholars stated that there are possibilities of increasing conflicts for bilinguals if bothlanguages have more similarity. Hence, it is more recommendable that knowledge of twodifferent languages which are not similar is better than knowledge of two similar languages. Inthe condition of knowing similar languages, the switching process is not used in actual andtherefore, the performance of bilinguals is somewhat similar to monolinguals. It was observed intests of cognitive tasks where, bilinguals outperformed the monolingual persons (Mackey &Sachs, 2012). This showed that bilinguals are more able to predict the behaviour of persons. Thisalso proved that a person could express himself in some ways as their cognitive development ismore that helps him in presenting actions in different ways. As mentioned above, verbal taskswere performed better by the monolinguals, contrary to it, the bilinguals' performance was better
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