Bioscience- Bone Health

Added on -2020-02-17

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Bioscience
TABLE OF CONTENTSPART A...........................................................................................................................................31) Homeostatic feedback system in response to decreased temperatures....................................3PART B............................................................................................................................................42) Homeostatic feedback system for elevated blood glucose level.............................................43) Consequence on bone health...................................................................................................5REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................................62
PART A1) Homeostatic feedback system in response to decreased temperaturesHomeostasis is the tendency of human body for gaining equilibrium with externalchanges in the surroundings. Dynamic equilibrium is maintained by the body internally but whenstate of homeostasis is left, a response or feedback system is initiated. In case of elevated ordecreased temperatures in the external environment, the body reacts in the form of sweating orshivering respectively. The main components of the feedback system are receptors, controlcentre and effectors. The stimulus that is sensed by the body is identified by receptors whilecontrol centre or the central nervous system interprets this stimuli (Modell & et. al., 2015).According to the stimulus, effectors provide a response to the body which is visible in the formof action and reactions.The feedback system that is activated in case of homeostasis can be of two types i.e.negative and positive depending on the type of stimuli. Decreased temperatures is a stimuliwhich means that there is a difference in the external surroundings as compared to the internalbody temperature. The feedback system in this kind of stimulus is negative. The receptor indecreased temperatures is skin. When the body detects that external environment has lowertemperatures, then a message signal is activated from skin and transferred to the control centre.In case of homeostatic feedback of decreased temperatures, the control centre is hypothalamus. Thermoreceptors transfer the signal of decreased temperature in external surroundings tothe hypothalamus. Here, the deflection from equilibrium is measured and identified accordingly.Effectors are skeletal muscles and blood vessels that receive the information of shivering andvasoconstrict. The effectors make the body shiver and try bringing the balance in equilibriumthat was lost due to difference in temperature of external and internal surroundings. Skeletalmuscles rapidly contract and try generating heat which makes body warm (Johnson, Minson &Kellogg, 2014). On the other hand, blood vessels undergo vasoconstrict. In this process, thediameter of blood vessel is decreased and the blood flow beneath the surface of skin is reduced.This causes the skin to turn pale. Heath generated by muscle contraction is trapped and not lostto the surface. As a result, the body starts shivering in the stimulus of decreased temperatures. 3

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