Anatomy and Function of the Cardiorespiratory System


Added on  2023-06-08

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Anatomy and Function of the Cardiorespiratory System_1

1. Identify gross anatomical structures of the cardiorespiratory system. Write an
explanation of the normal operation and function of the respiratory and cardiovascular
Gross anatomical structure of the cardiorespiratory system:
The cardiopulmonary system can be defined as the essential transport system of the body. It
comprises three main components such as the heart, the blood vessels and the blood itself.
The heart:
The heart is a 250-350 gram organ located in a roundabout way in the mediastinum.
The organ act as a pump to circulate blood flow throughout the body and participate in the
gaseous exchange of transmission to the pulmonary circuit (Boroumand et al., 2018).
It contains totals four chambers, atrium and ventricle two of each placed in both sides
of the heart.
The right side of the chambers are responsible for the supply of pulmonary
circulation, and the left side is mainly responsible for the systematic blood circulation.
The right side chambers are divided by the tricuspid valve, and the mitral (bicuspid)
valve separates left side chambers. Both valves are known as the atrioventricular
Blood flows in single directional through the heart, and the opening and closing of the
valves mainly depend upon the pressure gradients.
Figure: Anatomy of the heart
Source: (Boroumand et al., 2018)
Anatomy and Function of the Cardiorespiratory System_2

The blood vessels
The blood vessels are a tube, which carries the blood from the heart to organs and
vice-versa. Veins take the carbon-di-oxide rich blood from organs to heart and arteries carry
the oxygen-rich blood from the heart to organs (Boroumand et al., 2018). Capillaries connect
the vein and arteries. Blood flows from left ventricles to the aorta. Pulmonary artery takes the
blood into the heart, and the pulmonary veins carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are two large veins transport blood from organ to
the right atrium.
Figure: Anatomy of the blood vessel
Source: (Boroumand et al., 2018)
Cardio-respiratory system:
Through inhaling a mixture of gases, go through the trachea, then narrowing down into
bronchi and bronchioles.
Alveoli is in the end part of the trachea, and the network of capillaries surrounds it.
Haemoglobin an iron-based pigment collects the oxygen and goes through the pulmonary
vein to the left atrium.
Then it enters the aorta. The artery system transports the oxygenated blood to organs and
Figure: Oxygen circulation process
Anatomy and Function of the Cardiorespiratory System_3

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