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HLTENN013 Implement and monitor care of the older person

Added on - 19 Nov 2021

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Caring for The Older People
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Institution Affiliation
1. Medical History
The past medical history that Miss Alice had include myocardial infarct diagnosed
for ten years ago, hypertension diagnosed for ten years ago, osteoarthritis especially in
her right knee, and depression and anxiety diagnosed for two years ago. The impact of
her medical history includes;
Myocardial infarct (MI). A myocardial infarct is a condition that arises when there
is a decrease in blood flow or the blood stops flowing in a part of the heart; it causes
damage to the muscle of the heart. Myocardial infarct condition that is present in Miss
Alice may/will have health-related complications like irregular heartbeat, heart failure,
cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock (Shah et al, 2015). As presented in the case
scenario Miss Alice had experienced two falls this may be as a result of the effects of
Hypertension. Hypertension is a condition that occurs when there is a high force
of blood that flows in the artery walls. Hypertension gives rise to health-related
conditions like narrowed and damaged arteries, aneurysm-causing a damage to the
heart that includes heart failure, enlarging the left heart and causing coronary artery
disease, causing brain-related problems like transient ischemic attack, dementia, stroke
and mild cognitive impairment, and damaging the kidney which can result to kidney
artery aneurysm, kidney failure and kidney scarring (Gabb et al, 2016). It is evident from
the case study that hypertension had influenced Miss Alice conditions by causing health
conditions like dementia, causing a transient ischemic attack and mild cognitive
impairment as she seemed confused since she cannot even remember her room.
Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a condition that affects the normal functioning of
body joints. The impacts that osteoarthritis has on the wellbeing of a person include
causing stiffness, pain and tenderness in body joints. As in the case scenario, Alice had
been affected by osteoarthritis since she had been complaining of experiencing pain in
her right knee.
Depression and anxiety. These conditions are mainly caused by stress. Some of
the health conditions that may arise to Alice due to depression and anxiety include;
insomnia, trouble with decisions or memory, weight fluctuations, fatigue and feeling of
emptiness or sadness. In the case scenario, Alice had started portraying some effects
of depression and anxiety like trouble with memory since she had forgotten that her
sister died, lack of sleep and loss of weight (Prince et al, 2015).
2. Theory of aging
The Immunological Theory of Aging
The Autoimmune Theory of Ageing ascertains that as people grow old, their
immune system tends to be less effective, start experiencing dysfunction and start
reducing the capacity to fight an infection. The theory holds that as people age their
immune system decreases and hence one becomes more prone to chronic conditions
(Fulop, Witkowski, Pawelec, Alan & Larbi, 2014). Older people mainly experience
changes in the immunological level which alters their immune system and hence
causing alterations and disruptions in the interaction of the immune system with the
other body systems. As in the case scenario, considering the past medical history of
Alice she was first diagnosed with Myocardial Infarct, osteoarthritis particularly in her
right knee and hypertension at the age of 79 years. Her immune system continued to be
weak since at the age of 87 she was diagnosed with depression and anxiety. It is
evident from the case scenario that immune decreases as one grow older since the
more Alice gets older, the more she is experiencing more health-related complications
like urinary incontinence, Alzheimer’s dementia, insomnia and inadequate eating
(Walford, 2016).
3. Physiology of aging
As people grow old, the functioning of their organs is affected by the
physiological process and diseases associated with aging start occurring. The normal
aging process influences the physiological process of a person especially in the third
and fourth decades of life resulting to deterioration of the functioning of the organ
systems as someone grows old (Flaatten, Skaar & Joynt, 2018). Aging influences all the
body’s organs, tissues, and cells and hence it influences the way all the body systems
function normally. Some of the common physiological changes that occur with age
include the increase in blood pressure, a decrease in cardiac output and the
development of arteriosclerosis. The lungs also start portraying lower expiratory rates of
flow, the decline in the vital capacity and compromised gas exchange. The physiological
changes that occur in a person are necessary since they form the basis for effective
clinical management of the older people (Willott, Cegielski, Smith, Gordon, Atherton &
Phillips, 2018). As evident in the case scenario, Miss Alice started experiencing
changes in the body functioning at the age of 75 years. It is at the age of 75 years that
she was diagnosed with health-related complications like hypertension, osteoarthritis
and myocardial infarct. As Miss Alice continued growing old, more age-related
conditions were prevalence since at the age of 87 years she was diagnosed with
anxiety and depression, and at the age of 88 years, she was diagnosed with urinary
incontinence and Alzheimer’s Dementia.
4. Primary health services
Some of the appropriate primary health services that are essential for Miss Alice
The health care providers should be continually reviewing the patient. Continually
reviewing Miss Alice is essential since it assists in the reduction of falls that she is
experiencing. Continually reviewing the patient especially those experiencing falls is
essential since it helps to reduce chances of a fall and in case a fall occurs the health
care provider will be aware and hence can provide the necessary interventions
practices. Prevention of falls is important since it improves the quality of life and
prevents unintentional injuries of patients especially the old patients.
Collaborative provision of health carse services. Studies show that services that
are provided collaboratively by health care providers are more effective especially to a
patient with dementia and depression. The collaborative way of working is important
since it helps in ensuring early care and shared decision making in the treatment of the
patient (Bujnowska-Fedak & Pirogowicz, 2014). Collaborative with health specialist is
essential when treating Miss Alice since she had been diagnosed with Alzheimer
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