Case Of Type 2 Diabetes

Added on - 15 Jan 2020

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Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurse1Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurseStudent's Name:Instructor's Name:Date:
Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurse2Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurseIntroduction:Diabetes mellitus is one of the most commonly occurring disease conditions across the world(American Diabetes Association, 2013). It is characteristically defined as a collective disease ofmetabolism (American Diabetes Association, 2013). It is typically characterized by theoccurrence of hyperglycemia resulting from a group of metabolic anomalies that affect thesecretion or action of insulin or cause insulin resistance in the body (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). Long term damage, failure, or dysfunction of various organs such as thekidneys, nerves, eyes, heart, and blood vessels can cause hyperglycemia of a chronic order indiabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The development of diabetes includes severalpathogenic processes (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The primary pathway ofdevelopment of diabetes is the damage of pancreatic β-cells by an autoimmune processconsequently leading to deficiency of insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2013).Ultimately, anomalies in the action of insulin are caused (American Diabetes Association, 2013).The deficiency in the action of insulin on the target tissues leads to several subsequentabnormalities such as metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). The deficiency in insulin action is primarily caused by the inadequacy in thesecretion of insulin along with reduced responses to insulin by the tissue (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). The decrease in the tissue response is caused at several points on thecomplex system of pathways of the action of hormones in the system (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). Hyperglycemia is often a common occurrence in most cases of diabetes andis caused by several abnormalities (American Diabetes Association, 2013). Impairmentsoccurring in the secretion of insulin and the defective action of insulin are frequently comorbid
Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurse3in most patients and often one or more of these abnormalities cause hyperglycemia, which is themain pathological event in all the different types of diabetes (American Diabetes Association,2013). The primary symptoms of hyperglycemia include polydisia, polyuria, and loss of weighalong with several instances of polyphagia, and the blurring of vision (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). The impairment of growth and the susceptibility to the various infectionsthat likely accompany chronic case of hyperglycemia (American Diabetes Association, 2013).Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis are a few of the most common and life-threateningcomplications that are consequent occurrences in persons with diabetes (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). The nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome is an additional occurrence that isobserved as a comorbid complication in diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2013).Diabetes is primarily regarded as a condition having implications on personal lifestyle and health(American Diabetes Association, 2013). It is a limiting condition as it affects the lifestyle habitsof the individual (American Diabetes Association, 2013). Habits including smoking, alcoholconsumption, and excessive consumption of foods rich in starch are common causes of certaintypes of diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2013). However, the diagnosis andmanagement methods of the different classifications of diabetes primarily vary with thesymptoms and the clinical presentations of the disease (American Diabetes Association, 2013).The classification and diagnosis of the particular type of diabetes depends on the history,presentations, and the various socioeconomic data of the patient (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). There is a risk of development of long term complications of diabetes [1].The common complications include a potential loss of sight or vision, diabetic retinopathy,diabetic nephropathy and renal failure, ulcers of the foot, neuropathy of the autonomic nervoussystem leading to complications in the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular
Diabetes – a contemporary approach and the role of the nurse4systems (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The chronic complications are not limited to aspecific type of diabetes mellitus and are common to all the different types (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013). The occurrence of these secondary complications needs to be prevented withthe use of different treatment and management options (American Diabetes Association, 2013).Regular monitoring of the different systems and functions is an essential requirement in diabetes(American Diabetes Association, 2013). Additionally, the patients of diabetes are at an increasedrisk of developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, cerebrovascular, and arterialcomplications (American Diabetes Association, 2013). There are several syndromes associatedwith diabetes mellitus including hypertension, dysfunctional or abnormal metabolism oflipoproteins (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The great number of incidences of diabetesis broadly classified as two main categories based on their etiological and pathologicalcharacteristics: type 1 and type diabetes mellitus (American Diabetes Association, 2013). In thefirst category i.e. type 1 diabetes mellitus, the causative factors are primarily deficiency ofinsulin secretion and action in absolution (American Diabetes Association, 2013). Individualswho develop the syndrome of type 1 diabetes mellitus display a chain of autoimmune events in apathologic process that occurs in the islets of the pancreas (American Diabetes Association,2013). The determination of such events and thus a preliminary detection of possible occurrenceof type 1 diabetes mellitus can be done by means of genetic markers or serological ascertainingfactors and evidence (American Diabetes Association, 2013).The other category of diabetes mellitus, the type 2, is more common and has a higher prevalencerate (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The causative factors for type 2 diabetes areprimarily a combination of resistance to the action of insulin and an inadequate response to thecompensatory secretion of insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2013). In the case of type 2
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