Case Study Analysis on Diabetes

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Running Head: TYPE 1 DIABETES: CASE STUDY ANALYSISType 1 Diabetes: Case Study AnalysisName:Institution and AffiliationsInstructor:Date:
TYPE 1 DIABETES: CASE STUDY ANALYSIS1.Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetesa.High blood glucose levelHigh blood glucose level in diabetes type 1 is directly related to the low levels and/orlack of insulin in the body due to autoimmune response that destroys the pancreatic beta cells(Cleland, 2017). The destruction of these insulin-producing cells leads to low and/or noinsulin in the blood. Without sufficient insulin which is supposed to enable the movement ofglucose from the bloodstream to body cells to be used as energy in metabolism, theredevelops a glucose surge within the bloodstream.b.Glucose in the urineThe high glucose level among type 1 diabetic patients which can sometimes exceed 160 –180mg/dl which is the Renal Threshold for Glucose makes the proximal tubules of thekidneys overwhelmed making it to excrete glucose in urine. Children just like pregnantwomen usually have low Renal Threshold for Glucose (below 7mmol/L) beyond which theydevelopglycosuria (Reznik & Cohen, 2013).Since the proximal tubule only reabsorbslimited amounts of glucose, the excess glucose passes into the urine of the patient.c.Increase urinationAlso referred to as polyuria, the condition occurs when an individual has excess sugarlevels in blood. In normal circumstances, kidneys they reabsorb all glucose to be directedback into the bloodstream (Cleland, 2017). However, type 1 diabetes leads to high glucoselevels in urine which pulls more water through osmosis from the bloodstream forming excessurine within a short time.d.Increased thirstIncreased thirst is referred to as polydipsia which is directly related to the increased loss ofwater through excessive urination among type 1 diabetics.A high concentration of glucose inthe bloodstream beyond 200mg/dL the kidneys, can no longer reuptake glucose from water
TYPE 1 DIABETES: CASE STUDY ANALYSIS(Weise et al, 2017). This leads to a high osmotic pressure in the in the urine within theproximal tubules of the nephron. As a result, water cannot be any more absorbed into thebloodstream but lost as urine leaving the body dehydrated. The increase in thirst therefore isthe body’s response to the low water levels in the bloodstream as result of its high lossthrough urination.e.Increased appetiteIncreased appetite also referred to as polyphagia is caused by insufficient amounts ofglucose in the body cells. This, results from low or lack of insulin in the body; hindering themovement of sugar from bloodstream into the tissues. In this case, hypoglycaemia developsdue to the body’s inability to convert the food in the body into energy and thus perpetuallystarving cells(Reznik & Cohen, 2013). The body responds appropriately to prevent starvingof crucial tissues by making patients feel rapidly hungry and a need to feed.f.KetonesThe lack of and/or low levels of insulin among type 1 diabetes patients makes thebody cells to starve due to lack of sugar and thus resort to breaking down fat for energy.Ketones among type 1 diabetes patients result from the burning of fat in the cells instead ofglucose(Ogbera, 2014). This process leads also to the spilling ofketonesthat form in bloodinto the urine.A loss of weight among diabetic patients also produces ketones since there isno sufficient insulin to enable the body break down sugar to create energy.g.Weight-lossPatients with type 1 diabetes experience sudden weight-loss. The loss of weight is mainlyattributed to the body’s breakdown of fat to create energy. The fat which contributes to thebody weight in normal circumstances is broken down by cells to create energy since there isno sugar in the cells due to lack of insulin (Ogbera, 2014). The body also burns the muscle
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