Cell Division and Heredity Assignment

Added on - 04 Oct 2020

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Cell Division and Heredity
Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................3MAIN BODY...................................................................................................................................3Description of mitosis and meiosis along with discussing their significance.............................3Impact of one geneticist on an understanding of genetics..........................................................7Understanding of mono hybrid and dihybrid crosses including sex links..................................7Main sources of variation including crossing over, gene and chromosome mutations..............8CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................9REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................10
INTRODUCTIONCell division refers to a particular process in which a parent cell divides in order to giverise to two of more daughter cells. It can be considered as an important biological process inmany organisms which is the means used by multicellular organisms to, replenish (repair), growand reproduce (Şen, Öztekin and Demirdöğen, 2018). The present report will focus ondescription of mitosis and meiosis along with their significance. It will also include impact ofone geneticist on the understanding of genetics. The understanding of mono hybrid & dihybridcrosses including sex links along with main sources of variation involving crossing over, geneand chromosome mutations is given below.MAIN BODYDescription of mitosis and meiosis along with discussing their significanceThe mitosis can be described as a process of cell division in which a single cell dividesinto two identical daughter cells. It involves the major purpose of mitosis is known as growth aswell as replacement of worn out cells from the body. However, the daughter cells formed bymitosis are similar to mother cells size, shape and chromosome complement. In addition to this,
it has been analysed that if not corrected on time then mistakes occur during process of mitosismay results into modification in genetic material i.e. DNA which can potentially results intoleads to different kinds of genetic disorders in an individual. The process of mitosis consistsnumber of phases such as interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.Interphase– This phases involves that preparation of cell division take place by copyingDNA in cell which leads to an identical set of chromosomes. It includes that the microtubulesextend from centrioles in pair of centrosomes outside the nucleus (Hlavová,Vítová and Bišová,2016).Prophase– In this phase, the chromosomes are observed to be condense in structure of Xshaped which is easily visible under microscope and every chromosome has two sisterchromatids having identical genetic data. The membrane around the nucleus get dissolved in cellby releasing chromosomes and mitotic spindle consisting microtubules extends across cellamong centrioles.Metaphase– This phase consist the line up of chromosomes from end-to-end along withcentre of the cell and centrioles are situated at opposite poles with mitotic spindle extending fromthem. Moreover, the mitotic spindle fibres connect to each of sister chromatids.Anaphase– The sister chromatids are pulled part by mitotic spindle ad both pulls toopposite poles.
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