Chapter 2: Literature Review- Employees Job Satisfaction

Added on - 30 Sep 2019

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Chapter 2: Literature Review2.1 Introduction to Employees Job SatisfactionThe notion of job satisfaction is multi-dimensional and may be applicable to productivity andorganizational commitment. It is observed as an individual or a social dimension, or fromperspectives such as cost and reward, public sector and private sector.The aim of this study is to determine the most important factors that affect the job satisfaction ofemployees.Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs anda predicator of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism and turnover. Jobsatisfaction is the key element that emphasizes recognition, income, promotion and theachievement of other goals for feeling of fulfillment(AZIRI 2011). Job satisfaction is consideredas an important factor for employees’ retention. It is defined as employees’ views regardingvarious magnitude of their job(Omidifar 2013). Job satisfaction is explained as a bi-dimensionalconcept which provides two types of approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction dimensions(Funmilola et al. 2013).Job satisfaction is measured by two techniques- Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)and Job Description Index (JDI). The MSQ can be utilized both individually and in group but itdoes not consider gender differences. 1977 version of MSQ indicates various aspects of job likeco-workers, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies, compensation,security, working conditions etc. But JDI is one of the widely used measuring technique which
considers all aspects of work, including gender differences. The scale of job satisfaction is a)Nature of work; b) Pay; c) Co-workers and d) Promotion(Astrauskaitė et al. 2011).2.2 Definitions of Employees Job SatisfactionJob satisfaction is defined as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from theappraisal of one’s job or job experiences”. Locke’s Job Satisfaction Model (1976) is a well-known corner stone theory in the job satisfaction literature. He uses mainly two dimensions foranalyzing the job satisfaction: job components and comfort factors. Job components includereward, interest, challenge, autonomy, and relation with co-workers, opportunities to useabilities, creativity, variety, self-esteem, pay, promotion, and supervision. Comfort factorsinclude working hours, travel time, physical surrounding, characteristics of the enterprise and itsmanagement, fit between employee, work, and expectations in the workplace. It is also definedby Newstrom (2011) as “a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions whichemployees view with their work”. According to Fogarty, job satisfaction is referred to the extentto which employees gain enjoyment from their efforts in their workplace. According to Kaplan(2008), emotional aspect refers one’s feelings regarding the job, cognitive aspect refers one’sthoughts and beliefs regarding the job, and, behavioral component refers to people's actions withrespect to the job.Theories of job satisfaction are divided into two categories: content theories and process theories.Content theories identify factors leading to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and suggest that jobsatisfaction come true when employees’ need for growth and self-actualization are met by their job.Process theories attempt to describe the interaction between variables for job satisfaction and explainjob satisfaction by looking at how well the job meets one’s expectations and values.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human NeedsA.H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of human needs model during 1940-50’s. Maslow’shierarchy of needs is leading one of the fundamental motivation theories. According to Maslow’s
theory, human needs divided into five categories. These categories contain all human activities,which are “Physiological or Basic Needs”, “Security or Safety Needs”, “Belonging or AffectionNeeds”, “Esteem or Ego Needs” and “Self-Actualization Needs”. The assumption of this modelis that, only feeling satisfied, to a certain level, about needs of a lower level creates a desire toimplement a need on a higher level . Each employee of an organization would prefer to move tothe next level after achieving the needs in the low level, then, the old need loses its importancesince it is satisfied.The ERG TheoryClayton Alderfer (1969) proposed Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory. The ERG theory is anextension of Maslow's hierarchy of human needs theory. Alderfer stated that needs could beclassified into three categories, rather than five and these are; existence needs, psychological andsafety needs; and relatedness needs. Existence needs are similar to Maslow's physiological andsafety need categories. Relatedness needs involve interpersonal relationships, which are similarto Maslow's belongingness and esteem needs. Growth needs are related with the attainment ofone's potential, which are associated with Maslow's esteem and self-actualization needs.Theory X and Theory YDouglas McGregor introduced Theory X and Theory Y, which contains two different assumptionsets corresponding to relationships between managers and employees (De Cenzo & Robbins,1994). The main assumption of Theory X is that employees dislike work and have tendency toavoid it. This kind of people must be continuously controlled and threatened with punishment inorder to succeed the desired aims. On the other hand, Theory Y is assumed that employees couldhave self-direction or self-control if he/she is committed to the jobs. According to McGregor,Theory Y is seemed to be more valid and greater job involvement, autonomy and responsibility;given employees, increase employee motivation.Herzberg-Two Factor Theory
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