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what will be the career I will choose in the future?

Added on - 25 Jan 2022

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CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND A REVIEW LITERATURE
The Background of the Study
In the stage of Adolescence, an individual is able develop his decision
making skills, at this stage he begin to think what career path he will take. This
affirmed the statement of Bandura (1968) that the social environment such as family,
friends, and relatives may affect the career choice of an individual. Similar to the idea
of Ryan (2000) that this is also the time where each individual makes useful decision
and ask themselves a question such as "what will be the career I will choose in the
future?" that is when person surrounding an individual contributes influence on
his/her life choices.
As an individual begin to explore in the outside world, they are able to think of
a profession that they want to achieve. However, according to Witko, et.al (2006)
there are different factors affecting the work choice of high school students such as
their talent, field of interest, challenges they face and parental support. Similar to the
findings in the study of La (2009) that senior high school students revealed that
parents choose the strand for their children and Howard (2004) found out that peer
can be a factor too affirmed by the findings of Siew Chin, (2019) shows that there is
significant positive relationship between personality, parental and peer influences and
career choices.
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Choosing a career is very crucial because this can be the starting point in
achieving the goals in life. The general purpose of this study is to find out if peer and
parents influence can affect and how it affects the career preference of the Senior
High School Students of San Isidro National High School when they enter college.
Review of Related Literature
This part of research prove that all data gathered by the researcher is reliable and
true, this prove the accuracy of the study that lead in achieving the desired result and
goals.
Foreign Related Literature
A. Peer Group Influence on Students’ Anxiety Learning
Frankly, There are times that having peers are stressful, it is the time when you
are unable to make your own choice or decision thinking what your friends might
think and feel. According to a study conducted by Kadir et.al (2018), the result shown
that peer influence can generate and worsen the anxiety of the students affecting their
academic performance, this study aimed to discover the factors such as peer influence
affecting the academic performance of the students. This study is a descriptive
qualitative research wherein the data and results were obtained using interview and
observation. The respondents are the second grade SMAW 2 selected randomly using
sampling technique.
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The data obtained revealed that communication skill development, sharing
diverse assumption, and collaborative learning can be influenced by peer group and
leads to anxiety.The author recommended that good grouping and teaching method
and conditions can help provide better working group for students.
B.Factors Affecting the Career choices of the Senior High School Students
The study of Mtemeri (2017) sought to investigate factors that influence the
choice of career pathways among high school students in Midlands Province of
Zimbabwe. The investigation serves as a springboard to establishing a career guidance
model that would assist career guidance teachers in high schools in their endeavors to
help students make career choice from a well-informed perspective. A survey design
which was mainly quantitative in nature was used in this empirical study. A self-
designedquestionnairewasusedincollectingdatafromtheparticipants.One
thousand and ten high school students and 20 career guidance teachers participated in
the study. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19 calculated the
percentages that were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that family
members, both nucleus and extended, had an influence on students’ choice of careers.
The influence of mothers and fathers was rated highly as compared to other family
members. The study also revealed that schools had an impact on high school students’
choice of careers. Career guidance, especially school career days, was cited as having
a positive impact on students’ choice of careers. The geographical location of schools
was cited as quite influential in the choices of careers by students. The study also
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revealed that peers had an influence on students’ choices of careers through peer
advice and encouragement.
C.Career Choices among Undergraduates
Wong, Siew Chin, (2019) conducted a studyexamining how undergraduates
personality, parental and peer influences on their career choice. Partial Least Square,
hierarchicalcomponentmodel(HCM)wasusedtomeasuretheformative
measurement model of personality construct and reflective measurement models of
parent and peer influence constructs on career choices in the study.Data were
collected from 218 of undergraduates from local private and public universities.
Findings show that there is significant positive relationship between personality,
parental and peer influences and career choices.
D. A Review of literature about Peer Influence
Edkin (2016) states that the years in which an individual attends college is a
unique time in one’s life, it’s a time to grow and become independent while working
through a pattern of behaviors in which are acceptable to the college environment.
The goal of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the relationships
between gender differences, socialization and other factors that have been identified
in the existing studies of risk-taking behavior among college students and how peer
influence can play a massive role in conformity and/or deviance. Included are also
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analyses of social norms and explanations of problematic behavior which can vary in
terms of definition.
One of the most researched and the path of this paper will follow is excessive
alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption plagues college campuses and researchers
are trying to understand leading causes, which has led them to investigate how peer
influence affects individuals. The paper begins with an overview of measuring social
norms which can be a useful element in research to determine what factors are
responsible in individuals adopting risk-taking behaviors. Once norms are explained
socialization, peer influence, and gender differences will be examined and compared
with respect to the decision to engage in risky behaviors.
E.Parent Involvement and Children's Academic and Social Development
El Nokali et.al (2010) Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development
considered 1364 respondents used to investigate children's trajectories of academic
and social development across first, third and fifth grade. Hierarchical linear modeling
was used to examine within- and between-child associations among maternal- and
teacher-reports of parent involvement and children's standardized achievement scores,
social skills, and problem behaviors. Findings suggest that within-child improvements
in parent involvement predict declines in problem behaviors and improvements in
social skills but do not predict changes in achievement. Between-child analyses
demonstratedthatchildrenwithhighlyinvolvedparentshadenhancedsocial
functioning and fewer behavior problems.
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Local Related Literature
A.Parent and Peer Influences on Adolescent Delinquent Behavior and the
Mediating Role of Self-Regulation
From the statement “Birds of the same feather Flocks together” it clearly states
that peer of the same group is more likely having similar behaviors. And Parents can
greatly affect the behavior of their children based on their disciplining methods.
According to the study conducted by Librojo and Alampay (2010) examined the
influence of parent and peer variables on delinquent behavior and explored whether
the relationships were mediated by adolescent self-regulation. Two hundred thirty-
eight third- and fourth-year Filipino high school students responded to measures of
parental induction and power-assertive discipline, parental nurturance, self-regulation,
peer delinquency, and self-reported delinquency, Correlation analysis indicated that
power-assertive discipline and peer delinquency were associated with higher levels of
delinquency and lower self-regulation.
Conversely, Inductive discipline and nurturance were associated with less
delinquencyandhigherself-regulation.Regressionanalysisshowedthatpeer
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delinquencyandself-regulationcontributedsignificantlytothepredictionof
delinquent behavior.
B. Parental Involvement in the Philippines
Sometimes just because parents don’t want their children track the wrong path,
they tend to lead them. This affirmed the study of Bartolome et.al (2017)Parental
involvement refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to the
schooling of his/her children. Some schools foster healthy parental involvement, but
sometimes parents has hesitations if they will involve themselves with their children's
education. It has been advocated in Western countries. However, there is a body of
literature that examines the significance of social and cultural influences and the
effects of parents’ involvement in and expectations of their children’s development,
learning and career choices.
C. Influence of Peers in the Student's Study Habit
The study of Calingayan, J. T. et. al (2017)aimed to ascertain the influence of
peers in the study habits of BEEd student of Quirino State University – Diffun
Campus. It likewise aimed to determine the significant differences on the extent of
influence of peers on the study of habits of students when they were grouped as to
age, sex, civil status, ethnic affiliation and year level. This study utilized descriptive
method in describing how peers influence the study habits of the students. One
hundred eighty-one BEEd students were utilized as respondents of the study.
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Researchers adopted and revised the questionnaire with the help of an expert
that described the influence of peers on the study habit of the students. Mean was used
to describe the influence of peers on the study of habits of students.The t-test and
ANOVA were used to assess the significant differences on influences of peers on the
respondents’ study habits. Results revealed that there were significant differences in
the level of influence of peers in the study habits of students when classified as to age,
sex, civil status, ethnic affiliation and year level. Based on the results of the study, the
respondents attained good grades since they are provided with positive influences.
Moreover, teachers can also influence the study habits of the students; thus, teachers
should provide collaborative learning and use varied strategies in teaching.
D. Students, Peer Pressure and their Academic Performance in School
Moldes, et.al (2019) stated that Adolescent have higher tendency to experience
peer pressure in school. Peer pressure is clustered in four categories such as social
belongingness, curiosity, cultural-parenting orientation of parents and education, this
research design used is descriptive correlation.
The researchers conducted the survey among the students in the Senior High School.
With 96 respondents who completed the survey. Quantitative data were processed by
using chi-square. The result would show the correlation between the perceived level
of peer pressure in terms of social belong, curiosity, cultural-parenting orientation of
parents and education. Generally, students are expected to face the effects of peer
pressure optimistically to cope up the negative impact of peer pressure in their studies.
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