Transformation and Implementation of Innovation Systems in Dubai Municipality


Added on  2019-09-16

19 Pages4743 Words1970 Views
Leadership ManagementDesign and CreativityData Science and Big DataPublic and Global HealthPolitical Science
Chapter Three : Research Methodology3.0 Introduction :Research methodology is considered to be vital in research study. In this section,the researcher describes research philosophy, significance, methodology,approaches, sample, etc.3.1 Research Philosophy:There are three major research methods. As Creswell (2013), points out these threemajor research methods are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed. These methods arebased on nature of the research and the questions mentioned, the research willdepend mainly on the mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach thatconsists of integrating one set of data, using theoretical and philosophical frameworks. The reason for having the mixed method can be as Kumar, (2005)highlightedthe collection of both quantitative and qualitative data, will neutralize weakness ofanalysis findings and makes its results comprehensive and applicable. By usingreports for the current and past situations, enhance the overall view of the research. According to Easterby-Smith, Thorpe & Jackson (2008), descriptive study of datacollection, allows the researcher to use both quantitative and qualitative data to findcharacteristics of the phenomenon being studied and offers a valuable multifacetedapproach for the data collection. It is where the researcher seeks for adequatedescription of processes and accurate information. As Monsen (2007) states,descriptive approach supports facts that are uncovered rather than to test predictedrelationship among variables. For this study, descriptive approach is the best modelto adopt, because it is keen to collect information regarding existing situations .Initially, the data summary is critically reviewed through analytic tools to analyzethem completely. The next stage is to ask about the findings. Then, the researcherwill explore why these findings here exist and what more investigation, explanation of
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justifications should be sought. The researcher will try to remove weakness factors ofthe descriptive approach as the objectivity, confidentiality and bias concerns toavoid human interests (Berg, 2004). Atkinson, P. & Hammersley, M.,(1988)suggested that qualitative research approach can be strengthened by integratinginterviews with the study observations. 3.2 Research Design: This study is designed to provide help in evaluating, selecting, and determining thebest actions for the situations studied. Based on Bryman and Bell (2015), researchdesign is the milestone for performing any research. 3.3 Methods of Data collection:A- Interviews:According to White, M.D. & Marsh, E.E.,(2006) interview is a popular instrument fordata collection and this can give valuable data and information when it is organizedproperly. Even King, and Horrocks (2010), stated that qualitative interviewapproach is one of the most useful methods for collecting data. The purpose of the qualitative interview is to share with the knowledge that isconceptual and theoretical and based on the interviewee experience (Patton, 2005).It is also demanded that in the interview, information should be followed and soughtin depth around the topic, and therefore, whatever is gained is for study andinvestigation purpose only. Furthermore, the researchers employ their expertise,hypothesizing and analyzing data collected from interviews.Denzin and Lincoln (2000), recommended that semi-structured interviews are mostlikely to be used in healthcare industry research due to its content of vital questionsto address the areas for exploring. Because it enables the interviewer to move freelyto follow ideas or responses with more details. Such flexibility approach gives anopportunity for expansion of relevant information and discovering areas that might bepreviously thought not relating to the research. 2
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B- Questionnaire:According to Burgess (2001), questionnaire is a tool of collecting data and recordinginformation on specific topics or issues of interest. Hence the questionnaire mainlyconsists of a list of questions and these questions should be directed withinstructions, based on its nature and purpose.Boynton and Greenhalgh ( 2004), mentioned that defining aims of the study is thefirst step in doing a survey. According to Krause (2002), researchers should reviewthe relevant literatures, study previous researches on the same topic, examineprevious questionnaire designs and check the latest findings. Therefore, beforeconducting the survey all these principles were taken into consideration for thisstudy.The questions of the study were categorized and organized in a logical order. Thequestionnaire was designed to suit to a case based situation, with a view to attractrespondents to read and complete easily.According to Bryant and Smith (2001), rushing for the survey indicates that qualityand reliability of survey might be questioned. In the survey, design of questionnaire,time needed for answering survey questions, the purpose of survey and theparticipantsprofiles to be included. Even there should be details in the introductoryletter such as title, purpose of the survey, questions being asked, and who willconduct it. C - Design of interview / QuestionnaireBradbur ,et al ., (1992) suggested maximum ten questions to be asked for in anygroup. Questions for the interviews to be designed as open ended questions. Itshould also considered to be clear to point and short, avoiding ambiguous words.Brace, (2008) mentioned that questions of the interviews are ideally to be semi-structured in nature with open ending format. 3
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According to Kothari (2004), questionnaire design is essential for collecting usefuldata and information. It requires lot of efforts and exerting more thoughts to bedeveloped in sequential stages. Therefore, all questions of the questionnaire areselected to provide value to the topic, being understandable, clear, and to avoidconfusion. Questions were so selected to examine attitudes and opinions of peoplerelated to the same subject .Here for this study the online method was chosen because it allows a very widernumber of facilities to share in, a speedy communication mechanism of respondingand receiving. The reasons for using closed ended questions is that closedquestions are easily managed and also coded (Kelley, et al., 2003). The main reasonfor selecting these type of questions is because it will allow comparisons of differentrespondents and observes the variations. Just few questions were open ended.D - Case Study Design:According to Merriam (1988), case study is a research approach by whichexploration of a phenomenon within its given setting can be prepared by using awide variety of data sources. The case study finds exploration and understanding of some complicated issues(Yin, 2011). Hence, it is considered to be one of the genuine research tools to beused for in depth investigations. This approach seems to be fit to align with thestudy purpose while tries to understand deep complexity and the barriers.From the varied case study designs, selection of a specific type of a case studyentirely depends on purpose of the study. Four types of case study designs wereobserved : single - case (embedded) design, single - case, (holistic) design, multi-case (embedded) design, multi-case (holistic) design. Stake (2013) highlighted thatthe evidences and findings generated from this type of study is dependable andreliable. However, some disadvantages can be anticipated like cost and timeconsuming factors.4
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