Childcare Assignment | Childcare and Education

Added on - 28 May 2020

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Running head: CHILDCARE AND EDUCATIONChildcare and educationName of the student:Name of the University:Author’s note
1CHILDCARE AND EDUCATIONTheories of developmentNumerous theories have described the concept of cognitive and physical development inchildren. These include the following:Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:This is the most standards theory on the basis of which other theories are judged. Aftervarious experiments with children and adolescents, Piaget concluded that children acquire newskills as they grow. He gave indication about four stages of cognitive development in whichchildren learn and develop cognitive skills. Theses stages include sensorimotor stage,preoperational stage, concrete operational and formal operations stage. Through these stages,Piaget has explained the method in which children constructs a mental model of the world.According to this theory, cognitive development occurs through biological maturation as well asinteraction with environment (Siegler 2016). The main strength of Piaget’s cognitivedevelopment theory is that it has clearly defined discrete stages of development by clarifyingqualitative difference in each stage instead of increasing complexity of behaviors at each stage(Demetriou, Shayer and Efklides 2016).Theory of language development:The theories related to learning perspective and speech development of children has beenmainly given by Skinner and Vygotsky. Skinner explained the process of language acquisition inchildren based on behaviorist reinforcement principle. The main argument of Skinner was thatchildren learn language by linking words with meaning. Hence, they utter correct word once theyget positive response from their mother and realize the communicative value of words (Barnes-
2CHILDCARE AND EDUCATIONHolmes et al. 2017). Skinner’s theory was opposed by Chomsky as he believed that structure ofbrain and its function controls the production and interpretation of speech. Hence, he defendedSkinner’s theory by stating that no trigger or positive reinforcement is needed for languageacquisition, instead grasp in language and speech fluency occurs at an optimal learning age (age3-10 years) (Friederici and Chomsky 2017). Therefore, based on the analysis of Chomsky andSkinner’s theory, it can be said that Chomsky favored innate learning mechanism for languagedevelopment and Skinner believed that children learn language by gaining knowledge throughexperience.Theories related to physical, emotional and social developmentThe theories related to development of children have been given by many theorists likeErik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Vygotsky.The Gesell’s theory gave idea about physicaldevelopment in children by explaining about maturational stages in children. Gesell explainedthat motor, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social behavior can measure developmentalmilestones in children (Horowitz 2014).Erikson provided new insight into human personality bythe theory of psychosocial development. It mainly focused on social and emotional aspects ofgrowth in children and developed eight stages to define psychosocial development in children.The theory explains that during each stage of development, children go through social conflictand they ascend to the next stage once the issues in the previous stage are resolved. It alsoclarified that children overcomes the crisis through maturity and involvement of social forcessuch as teachers and parents at each stage (Degges-White 2017). The strength of Erikson’stheory is that it has given good descriptive detail about social and emotional development inhumans; however one limitation is that the cause of development has not been covered. Incontrast to Erikson, Piaget and Vygotsky mainly had the opinion that children learn through
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