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Childhood Obesity in London - PDF

Added on - 31 May 2021

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Running head: DISSERTATIONImpact of government strategies intackling childhood obesity in LondonName of the StudentModule codeCourse codeDate of submissionTotal word count
1AbstractChildhood obesity has emerged as one of the biggest health issues prevailingin the UK andworldwidglobally, and in the UKe. The articles reviewed in this research study have shown thatthere is a demand forenhancingincreasing theawareness of the parentsregardingonchildhoodobesity, the risk factorsand itshealthconsequencesis essential. It has been identified that in spiteoftaking so manyimplementing severalinitiatives,the government lacksin taking alladoption of acomprehensivearoundapproachto tacklein managingchildhood obesity. A positive relationshipbetweenlawgovernment lawsand foodconsumptionculturehas been identified.Reviewing theexisting literature has helped the researcher in conducting aThenarrative literature reviewand payan in depth focus onanalysedingthefacts and evidences collected by the previous authors in similararea or research topic(s).AptAn appropriateliterature search strategyhashelped in collecting someof the most relevant articles from recent times, which in turn,helped in makingmadethe studycredible and reliable.1
2Table of ContentsChapter 1: Introduction............................................................................................................3Chapter 2: Research background, context and rationale..........................................................4Research aim....................................................................................................................5Research objective............................................................................................................5Chapter 3: Literature Search Strategy-.....................................................................................6Chapter 4-Main Findings from the Literature Reviewed.......................................................14Chapter 5- Discussion & Conclusion.....................................................................................18Discussion......................................................................................................................18Conclusion......................................................................................................................20References..............................................................................................................................222
3Chapter 1: IntroductionTheconcept oftermchildhood obesity can be defined as the situationor conditionwhereexcess body fatbecomes a major role in negatively affectingnegatively affectsthe development,well-being and health ofchildrena child. Themostappropriate techniquewhich is basicallyused forthe purpose of determining, calculating and measuring the actual volume of fat present in the bodyis calledasBody Mass Index (BMI)[ CITATION WHO18 \l 1033 ]. The BMI,or body mass indexalso known as quetelet indexhas its mainplays a majorrole in developing a correlation between themass weight and height of an individual,to identifywhether the person is obese or notpresence ofobesity in a person. Body mass index (BMI) hasbeen considered as an importantbecome a majortool, commonlywhich isused by organisations and government authorities,for the purpose ofidentifyingtheobesity levelsmajorly foramongchildren,belonging toranging betweenthe agegroup of 2 years and above. In recent times,it has been noticed thatthe concept of childhoodobesity has evolveditself to become ofas one ofthekeynational issues in countries such as,theUK andtheUSA.PThe public health departments of various countries around the worldareworkinghardin orderto reducetheproblem of obesity among children,between the age group of 2-10 years.There areChildhood obesity createsvarious effectsthat are usually borne bychildren dueto obesitysuch ason thephysical,long-termmentaland psychologicaloutcomes of the children, inthe long run[ CITATION Fou18 \l 1033 ]. Physical effects of obesity among children could lead toheart diseases, cancer and diabetesetc. Long-term effects of childhood obesity significantly impacttheir adult life in the form of type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, canceretc.FinallyIn addition,psychological impactsof obesity can lead to thedevelopment ofvarious situations such as,bullying, discrimination and harassment in their entire life.Similarly, theTheissue of childhood obesity has been categorised as one of the primaryhealthcare issues of the country. As perthereportsoftheTelegraph,it has been noticed thatoneamong five primary school childrenhas been sufferingsufferfrom the issue of childhood obesity.The statistical data of 2016/17,published by NHS clearly highlights thataround9.6% of childrenhave been measured overweight,by the time theyhave enrolledenrollthemselves in the school.Childhood obesity in the UK is increasing at an alarming speed,which is developingtherebycreatinga panic situation in the country,by severelyimpactingaffectingchildren belongingtoafromdeprivedsocio-economicbackground anddisadvantageousfamily situation[ CITATIONDon17 \l 1033 ]. Theobesity rate ofrates of obesity in theUKclearlyhighlights that London is thefrontrunner in terms of maximum number of obese children,as compared to other cities in thecountry.According to an article published in the UK, it has been observed that the rate of obesity in3
4the city of London is higher as compared to other parts of the nation. The primary reason behind therise of obesity among children ismostlydue to thepresence ofprevalence offast food businesses inthe country[ CITATION CRE15 \l 1033 ]. The Labour mayoral candidate of UK, Mr Sadiq Khanhas taken a bold decision in order to minimise the frequency of obesity among children. Khan hasintroduced health practices,which would restrict fast food outlets to set up their stores within 400metres of the school.4
5Chapter 2: Research background, context and rationaleOver the years,Cchildhood obesityfrom the pasthas gained hugenoticeimportance,especiallyin the European and American countries, owing tolargely totheir diet and lifestylepatterns. This hasleadsignificantly led the development of variousresearchers which arestudies,undertaken by authors all over the world,in order to identify and develop strategies to overcome theissue of childhood obesity. SM (2015)has significantlyfocused on conducting an analysis of thedeterminantsthat leadsto the occurrence of obesity and children,globally[CITATION SMM15 \l1033 ].The few of theSome of themajor determinants of child obesity are genetics, birth weight,andage and gender. The occurrence of obesity among childrencan arise from family genetics, if thewhen theBMI ofthemother andthefatherare overweightindicates them to be overweight. Theaspect offat mass and obesity associated genes,present within the childcan surelyresult inrising inweightincrease.The bBirth weight determinant isalso a majoranotherfactor that leads to gain ofweight,in the future. The rapid increase in the weight of low weight infants should be considered asan alarming factorfor obesity in futureas there is a high chance of being obese in the future. Theimpact of childhood obesity has also forcedtheWorld Health Organisation (WHO) to developappropriate norms and policies,which arerequired to be followed by countries,in order to controlchildhood obesity. The statistical report of WHO clearly shows that the number associated withchildhood obesity has massively increased from 32 million globally in 1990,to 41 million childreninthe year2016[ CITATION WHO181 \l 1033 ]. World Health Organisation (WHO) reported thatthe majority of cases of childhood obesity aregenerallyfrom the African region. The increase ofobese children in the African region has risen from 4 million in 1990 to 9 million in 2016. The rateof childhood obesity isrecorded to behigh in developing countries,as compared to developednations. However,there is no denyingbut that does not denythe fact that developed countries suchastheUK,theUSA and Canada are takingimmenseseveralsteps,by introducing new policies andregulations,to prevent further rise of childhood obesityin their respective countries.The rationale for conducting the research on childhood obesityis largely due to thecan bebased on thefact that this issue isone of the hot topics in theaglobalhealth concern,world andalso one of the most serious issuesprevailingin the healthcare department of theacross alldeveloped and developingcountries.The conductance ofConducting ananalysis on the issue ofchildhood obesity would allow the readers to acquireanin-depth and accurateknowledgeunderstandingofnthe impact and causes that lead tothe process of gainingexcessive weightgaining,among childrenrangingbetween the age group of 2-7 years[ CITATION Kuh151 \l 1033 ].This study wouldalso look to discussillustratethe views ofglobalauthors and scholars who have5
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