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Running head: CHINCHORRO CULTUREChinchorro culture
CHINCHORRO CULTURE1In this present paper, we will discuss the literature review of chinchorro culture which was apreceramic culture of South America. The paper also describes the geographic range of theculture, the time span of the culture, geographic and cultural origins, characteristics ofchinchorro culture, archeological evidence, and living descends about the people.The geographical region of the culture was formed by the sedentary fishermen who inhabited thesouth Peru and pacific coastal region of the current northern Chile. The humans were settled inthe arid region on the coast because of fresh water presence. The culture lasts from 9,000 to3,500 years BP which was 7,000 to 1,500 BC. The area of chinchorro culture was influenced bythe Andean Plateau in 4,000 BP due to which the agriculture was adopted by the chinchorroculture, and after that, the culture came under the influence of Tiwanaku culture. The culture isnamed after the beach of chinchorro. The chinchorro culture was spread across the arid coastalregions of the Atacama Desert which is from llo, and from southern Peru to Antofagasta which ispresent in northern Chile. There was various site of Archeology around Arica and CaletaCameroons.The people of chinchorro were the expert in fishing, and they made extensive and sophisticatedassemblage tools of fishing. They had efficient fishing gear for example fishing hooks whichwere made of shells and cactuses, and stone weights, and stone weights for nets which are madefrom mesh fabrics. The people become skilled weavers of mats and baskets. The type sites ofchinchorro were located in Arica, Chile. The type site was discovered by German archaeologistnamed Max Uhle in the twenty century. The various archaeological sites were discovered alongwith the coast. In Peru, Quebrada Jaguay and Quebrada Tachahuay were studied by thearchaeologists. Inland in Chile, they are also other sites of Las Conchas and Achas. QuebradaJaguay is the oldest site which is dated to 11,000 BC. The culture of chinchorro was developed
CHINCHORRO CULTURE2by the earlier settlements which are determined by arguing of scholars, and the research is stillgoing on the culture of chinchorro.The Chichorro mummy was founded on the site of Archas. The chinchorro culture hasdiscovered the first mummies (Hutchison et al., 2013). The practices of mummification andfunerary practices of chinchorro are very famous from the culture of chinchorro. The popular siteof Monte Verde has to be mentioned in this context which is near the Chilean coastline. Themummies of Chinchorro were older than the ancient Egyptians. The mummies of chinchorrowere going back to 7,000 or 9,000 BC. The DNA of mummies was recovered by the researchers.The duration of culture was several thousand years, and it evolves and adopted over the timeperiod. The culture of chinchorro was ended near 3500 BP.The knowledge of chinchorro culture was contributed by the Dr. Bernardo Arriaza who was theChilean physical anthropologist and his work was published in the journal Chinchorro. Later thework was published in the National geographic magazine which was translated into variouslanguages. The earliest tattoo was founded on the male mummy of chinchorro by the Americans.The local cultural development in the phase of Azapa was the translation period which wasstarted in the phase of Alto Ramirez and ended in the phase of chinchorro culture. It took placein the Azapa valley which is near to the coast. The cultural changes were influenced by theimmigrants from the Altuplano. These changes lead to the adoption of agricultural activities inthe 3,000 BP, and it also includes the introduction of ceramics, but their group doesn't mummifytheir dead for a long period. The study on the influence of wankarani culture and the early pukaraculture was done by various archeologists. The chinchorro may coexist with the emergentAndean tradition in the transitional phase. The mummies of chinchorro show the surprising levelof sophistication.