Assignment on Classical Condition

Added on - 30 Nov 2020

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Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning-A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacityto evoke a response that was originally evoked by anotherstimulus-Ivan PavlovResponsible for turning psychology from researchfocusing on subjective accounts of experience,introspection, to a more objective, rigorous, scientificapproachunconditioned stimulus (UCS)-A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response withoutprevious conditioningunconditioned response (UCR)-An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus thatoccurs without previous conditioningconditioned stimulus (CS)-A previously neutral stimulus that has, throughconditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditionedresponseconditioned response (CR)-A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occursbecause of previous conditioning
a trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentationof a stimulus or pair of stimuli. Psychologists are interestedin how many trials are required to establish a particularconditioned bondConditioned fears are less likely to develop when events seemescapable and controllable, and when people have a history ofnontraumatic encounters in similar situations. People who arerelatively low in anxiety probably acquire conditioned fearsless readily than those who are highly anxiousEvaluating Conditioning-Changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairingthat stimulus with other positive or negative stimuliWhen the drug is administered repeatedly in the context of theusual pre-drug cues, these cues elicit a CCR that reduces thedrug effect. As the drug is administered more and more often,and the CCR grows in strength, the reduction of the drugeffect becomes more pronounced. In addition, when the druguser is in the company of the cues associated with drug usebut is not administering the drug itself, withdrawal symptomsmay be producedCompensatory CS-The ‘ritual’ itself cancel out some of anticipated effects
of drug use, while progressively getting stronger,increasing tolerance-Can serve as a trigger relapses even if the drug is notpresent (backfire)-If drugs are taken in new ways or in new settings, the usualcompensatory CRs may not occur, increasing the risk of anoverdoseAcquisition-Initial stage of learning-Depends on stimulus contiguity. Stimuli are contiguous ifthey occur together in time and spaceExtinction-Gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditionedresponse tendencySpontaneous Recovery-Reappearance of an extinguished response after a period ofno exposure to the conditioned stimulusRenewal Effect-If a response is extinguished in a different environmentthan it was acquired, the extinguished response willreappear if the animal is returned to the originalenvironment where acquisition took placeExtinction suppresses a conditioned response rather thanerasing a learned associationStimulus Generalization-Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to aspecific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimulithat are like the original stimulusPanic stems from overgeneralizationStimulus Discrimination-Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to aspecific stimulus does not respond in the same way to newstimuli that are like the original stimulusHigher Order Conditioning-When a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an
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