Assignment on Classical Condition

Added on -2020-11-30

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Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning-A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacityto evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus-Ivan PavlovResponsible for turning psychology from research focusing on subjective accounts of experience, introspection, to a more objective, rigorous, scientificapproachunconditioned stimulus (UCS)-A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningunconditioned response (UCR)-An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningconditioned stimulus (CS) -A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned responseconditioned response (CR)-A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
a trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentationof a stimulus or pair of stimuli. Psychologists are interestedin how many trials are required to establish a particular conditioned bondConditioned fears are less likely to develop when events seem escapable and controllable, and when people have a history of nontraumatic encounters in similar situations. People who are relatively low in anxiety probably acquire conditioned fears less readily than those who are highly anxiousEvaluating Conditioning-Changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairingthat stimulus with other positive or negative stimuliWhen the drug is administered repeatedly in the context of theusual pre-drug cues, these cues elicit a CCR that reduces the drug effect. As the drug is administered more and more often, and the CCR grows in strength, the reduction of the drug effect becomes more pronounced. In addition, when the drug user is in the company of the cues associated with drug use but is not administering the drug itself, withdrawal symptoms may be producedCompensatory CS-The ‘ritual’ itself cancel out some of anticipated effects
of drug use, while progressively getting stronger, increasing tolerance-Can serve as a trigger relapses even if the drug is not present (backfire)-If drugs are taken in new ways or in new settings, the usualcompensatory CRs may not occur, increasing the risk of an overdoseAcquisition-Initial stage of learning-Depends on stimulus contiguity. Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and spaceExtinction-Gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendencySpontaneous Recovery-Reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulusRenewal Effect-If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took placeExtinction suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned associationStimulus Generalization -Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are like the original stimulusPanic stems from overgeneralization Stimulus Discrimination-Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are like the original stimulusHigher Order Conditioning-When a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an

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