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Components and Systems Operations of Turbine Engines

Added on - 08 Nov 2019

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Components and Systems Operations of Turbine Engines: A ReviewA turbine engine comprises of several components and systems and this reviewintends to give a brief description of the various systems and their way of operation. Thesystems that make up a turbine engine areinduction, fire detection systems, engine overheat,instrumentation, exhaust, cooling, charging, starting, electrical, lubrication, ignition, waterinjection, fuel metering, and fuel delivery (Anderson, 2009). The induction system is used tosupply high energy, distortion free air to the compressor so as to prevent stalling of thecompressor and maintain the internal temperature of the engine. It should also be capable ofdelivering most of the pressure recovered from the air to the engine with minimum loss ofpressure. It can have a fixed or variable geometry.The turbines capability to deliver the required thrust depends on the ability of the fueldelivery system to vary the fuel flow to the combustion chamber. If the fuel is supplied inexcess, then it results in rich blowout condition and if the supplied fuel is lower than therequirement then it results in lean die out condition both of which should be avoided(Anderson, 2009). Fuel pumps are used to deliver the required fuel for the operation of theengine at the desired pressure so as to obtain accurate nozzle spray and fuel regulation. Theycan be grouped into variable and constant displacement systems.A fuel heater is required to warm the fuel because residual water in the fuel tankfreezes when the fuel in the tank cools to 32 ºC or lower. Thus protecting the fuel from iceformation. The fuel controllers are protected from contamination using a high pressure fuelfilter (Anderson, 2009). Other control devices and fuel pump are protected using a lowpressure filter installed between the fuel system and the supply tanks. Most commonly usedfilters are plain screen mesh filter, wafer screen filter and micron filter.Fuel flow meters are used to determine the fuel consumption; they are also used toknow about the efficient operation of the engine. Fuel Nozzles are used to inject fuel into thecombustion chamber in a precise and highly atomized manner so that the burning takes placein the smallest of space within the shortest time period (Anderson, 2009). If the fuel is notevenly distributed, then the flame may burn through the liners and create hot spots in thecombustion chamber. Simplex and duplex configurations are two types of nozzles normallyused. The fuel is divided into primary and main manifolds using the pressuring valves and the
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