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•Comprehensively define human resource development and distinguish it from mere training•Make sure you can identify the two main outcomes that organisations seek to achieve through organisational learning;•Use examples to differentiate between or discuss single-loop and double-loop learning;•Briefly discuss each of the five steps in the ADDIE model;•Be able to describe the four levels of training evaluation proposed by Kirkpatrick’s model.•Differentiate between mentoring and coaching•Be able to discuss the training paradox and identify and briefly explain three actions that an organisation can take to retain talented human capital.What is HRD?Training, Development, Development, Learning, Organisational learning, Organisational Development, Knowledge management, Education, Managing careers and successionHRD includes training and development, career planning and development, as well as organisational learning, development, and change. Its focus is on the acquisition of the required knowledge, skills and abilities to facilitate the achievement of employee career goals and organisational strategic business objectives.HRM seeks to strategically integrate the interests of the organisation and its employees.•HRD is an integrated approach to performance improvement involving a wide variety of specific approaches and techniques•Purpose is the improvement of performance at the individual, task, process and organisational level i.e. at all levels•At the organisational level, it is heavily influenced by how performance is defined and by organisational valuesFrom pg. 361 Stone, such an approach, however, has been criticised for promoting compliance with the organisation’s values – particularly when the performance appraisal, recruitment and selection and reward systems are strategically integrated to reinforce the absorption of desired values or outcomes. This inculcation of culture, claims Kamoche, really is indoctrination, leading to employee loss of identity and unquestioning acquiescence (i.e. agreement/compliance/submission).
What is strategic HRD?HRD strategies are programmes and activities that contribute to long-term survival. HRD strategy is a course of action intended to have a long-term rather than short-term impact on significant rather than marginal areas of performance at organisational rather than individual level. The particular course of action will also have been arrived at through a series of decisions resulting from analysis of external as well as internal factors and be intended to directly contribute to matching organisational capability to changed and changing market conditions in order to achieve competitive advantage.Clardy defines SHRD as providing planned learning experiences on the KSAs needed in the future by various groups of organisational stakeholders. To do this HRD practices must be informed by organisational strategy and strategy must always be assessed in terms of KSA requirements and availability. Capability-driven SHRD develops and maintains skilled production routines that are the basis for competitive advantage and future success, this is quite different to remedying skills gaps. HRD becomes strategic when an organisation’s HRD activities move beyond short-term needs to focus on the long-term, strategic goals of the organisation HRD is an investment in the building of a firm’s human capital and thereby pursuing a sustainable competitive advantage through peopleHRD becomes strategic when the organisation begins to ask (and answer) questions like:•What KSAs are required by our current and future business strategies?•How might these change as the business or environment change?•What kind of skills will our people need 5, 10, or 20 years from now?•What kind of leadership skills will our future managers need and what are we doing about it?•What structures, processes, culture and systems will be needed in the work environment to support our people in achieving our goals?
•How might we develop unique human and social capital and defend these as sourcesof competitive advantage?Organisational learningOne definition of OL is “sustained improvement through performance”•Organisational learning defined in the context of the learning organisation is more than the sum of the parts of individual learning.•This is not just the tacit knowledge in peoples’ heads interaction•It is learning that is intended to ensure that future members of the organisation will have access to what has been learned through previous members experiences.•HRD plays a major role in preparing employees skilled problem solvers, developing creativity, learning from the past, transferring knowledgeWhat we really want to achieve in terms of organisational learning is two things:•Adaptability to the environmental changes/forces faced by the business; and•Continuously improving processes and the way we do thingsAccording to Senge, in order for organisational learning to take place five disciplines need to be practiced. Personal Mastery The first discipline involves an individual's ability to know what he or she wantsand to work toward that goal. In a learning organization, creating an environment in which memberscan develop themselves toward the goals and purposes they choose encourages personal mastery.Mental models , the second discipline, are an organization's and individual's internal picture of the world -a paradigm. Paradigms must be constantly evaluated, analyzed, and clarified to ensure they are as accurate as possible. Too many organizations get caught in an old paradigm and cannot react quickly enough to a changing market.Shared vision is building a sense of commitment in an organization by developing shared images of the future. This includes developing the principles and guiding practices used to reach the goal. In many organizations the mission or vision statement is often a tangible symbol of the shared vision. Team learning is geared toward developing collective thinking skills. These skills enable members of a group to reliably develop intelligence and abilities greater than the sum of the individual members' talents.Systems thinking is a way of thinking about and understanding the forces and interrelationships that shape the behavior of systems. This discipline helps organizations see how to change the systems more effectively and to act more in tune with the larger processes of the natural and economic world
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