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Human Resource Development Assignment - (Solved)

Added on - 30 Nov 2020

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Comprehensively define human resource development and distinguish it from mere trainingMake sure you can identify the two main outcomes that organisations seek to achievethrough organisational learning;Use examples to differentiate between or discuss single-loop and double-loop learning;Briefly discuss each of the five steps in the ADDIE model;Be able to describe the four levels of training evaluation proposed by Kirkpatrick’s model.Differentiate between mentoring and coachingBe able to discuss the training paradox and identify and briefly explain three actions that anorganisation can take to retain talented human capital.What is HRD?Training, Development,Development, Learning, Organisational learning, OrganisationalDevelopment, Knowledge management, Education,Managing careers and successionHRD includes training and development, career planning and development, as well as organisationallearning, development, and change. Its focus is on the acquisition of the required knowledge, skillsand abilities to facilitate the achievement of employee career goals and organisational strategicbusiness objectives.HRM seeks to strategically integrate the interests of the organisation and itsemployees.HRD is an integrated approach to performance improvement involving a wide variety ofspecific approaches and techniquesPurpose is theimprovement of performanceat the individual, task, process andorganisational leveli.e. at all levelsAt the organisational level, it is heavily influenced by how performance is defined and byorganisational valuesFrom pg. 361 Stone, such an approach, however, has been criticised for promoting compliance withthe organisation’s values – particularly when the performance appraisal, recruitment and selectionand reward systems are strategically integrated to reinforce the absorption of desired values oroutcomes. This inculcation of culture, claims Kamoche, really is indoctrination, leading to employeeloss of identity and unquestioning acquiescence (i.e. agreement/compliance/submission).
What is strategic HRD?HRD strategies are programmes and activities that contribute to long-term survival.HRD strategy is a course of action intended to have a long-term rather than short-term impact onsignificant rather than marginal areas of performance at organisational rather than individual level.The particular course of action will also have been arrived at through a series of decisions resultingfrom analysis of external as well as internal factors and be intended to directly contribute tomatching organisational capability to changed and changing market conditions in order to achievecompetitive advantage.Clardy defines SHRD as providing planned learning experiences on the KSAs needed in the future byvarious groups of organisational stakeholders. To do this HRD practices must be informed byorganisational strategy and strategy must always be assessed in terms of KSA requirements andavailability. Capability-driven SHRD develops and maintains skilled production routines that are thebasis for competitive advantage and future success, this is quite different to remedying skills gaps.HRD becomes strategic when an organisation’s HRD activities move beyond short-term needs tofocus on the long-term, strategic goals of the organisationHRD is an investment in the building of a firm’shuman capitaland thereby pursuing asustainablecompetitive advantagethrough peopleHRD becomes strategic when the organisation begins to ask (and answer) questions like:What KSAs are required by our current and future business strategies?How might these change as the business or environment change?What kind of skills will our people need 5, 10, or 20 years from now?What kind of leadership skills will our future managers need and what are we doingabout it?What structures, processes, culture and systems will be needed in the workenvironment to support our people in achieving our goals?
How might we develop unique human and social capital and defend these as sourcesof competitive advantage?Organisational learningOne definition of OL is “sustained improvement through performance”Organisational learning defined in the context ofthe learning organisationis more than thesum of the parts of individual learning.This isnotjust the tacit knowledge in peoples’ headsinteractionIt is learning that is intended to ensure that future members of the organisation will haveaccessto what has been learnedthrough previous members experiences.HRD plays a major role in preparing employeesskilled problem solvers, developingcreativity, learning from the past, transferring knowledgeWhat we really want to achieve in terms of organisational learning is two things:Adaptability to the environmental changes/forces faced by the business; andContinuously improving processes and the way we do thingsAccording to Senge, in order for organisational learning to take place five disciplines need to bepracticed.Personal MasteryThe first discipline involves an individual's ability to know what he or she wantsand to work toward that goal. In a learning organization, creating an environment in which memberscan develop themselves toward the goals and purposes they choose encourages personal mastery.Mental models, the second discipline, are an organization's and individual's internal picture ofthe world -a paradigm. Paradigms must be constantly evaluated, analyzed, and clarified to ensurethey are as accurate as possible. Too many organizations get caught in an old paradigm and cannotreact quickly enough to a changing market.Shared visionis building a sense of commitment in an organization by developing shared imagesof the future. This includes developing the principles and guiding practices used to reach the goal. Inmany organizations the mission or vision statement is often a tangible symbol of the shared vision.Team learningis geared toward developing collective thinking skills. These skills enable membersof a group to reliably develop intelligence and abilities greater than the sum of the individualmembers' talents.Systems thinkingis a way of thinking about and understanding the forces and interrelationshipsthat shape the behavior of systems. This discipline helps organizations see how to change thesystems more effectively and to act more in tune with the larger processes of the natural andeconomic world
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