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Computer Architecture and Principles PDF

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1Computer Architecture and Principles
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND PRINCIPLES
By (Student names)
[Course Name]
[Lecture Name]
[University Name]
[City where the university is located]
[Date]
2Computer Architecture and Principles
Table of Contents
Introduction.................................................................................................................................................3
The chosen Contemporary commercial computer systems........................................................................4
Mapping components to main building block.............................................................................................7
Research analysis and comparison of designs of the computer systems....................................................9
Explaining design aspects which includes:.................................................................................................10
Organization of the processor chip(s)....................................................................................................10
Instruction Set Architecture..................................................................................................................11
Internal Structure of the processor.......................................................................................................11
Cache Architecture and Organization....................................................................................................13
Interconnection Architecture.................................................................................................................14
Memory Management............................................................................................................................15
Input/Out modules used.......................................................................................................................16
Chose instruction set.................................................................................................................................17
An assembly language...............................................................................................................................17
Describing how parallel processing is supported by these systems..........................................................18
How Request-level parallelism could be adopted......................................................................................18
Prediction of the future trend of the design of computer systems..............................................................18
Reference...................................................................................................................................................19
3Computer Architecture and Principles
Introduction
In the field of computer engineering the computer architecture refers to the various rules and
methods that are set in order to give description of the system functions, organizations, and
implementations of the entire computer system, below are the various components and their
functions respectively.
i.The processor:
This is the computer system component that is responsible of the execution of the programs
through the arithmetic and logical operation of the entered data.
ii.Memory.
The memory in a computer system represents a passive component that is used in the storage of
the information which waits to be requested by any other part of the system.
iii.Input/output (I/O) devices.
It is used in transferring of the information without any alteration between the external entity and
the internal devices for example keyboard, mouse and video display.
iv.Communication devices/channels.
This is used to tie the entire system together where either using simple link to connect devices or
using complex switch to interconnect various components which allows the communication
between them at particular times.
The chosen Contemporary commercial computer systems
The selected computer systems include the point of sale system and the automated teller machine
as described here below:
i.Point of sale system (POS):
The point of sale system is a commercial system that is used for selling products and it is made
of the combination of hardware and software that are built in order to do centralization of
business operations.
4Computer Architecture and Principles
The point of sale is made of various components which are connected together to make the
whole system the below are the various components of the point of sale system.
i.Point of sale hardware.
This is the hardware that is connected to the other peripheral devices and in which the point of
sale system software and operating system is installed.
ii.Point of sale computers.
This is the main part of the point of sale system that comprises of the Central processing unit
(CPU) that mainly runs the software.
iii.The cash drawer.
This is a very essential part section of point of sale system where various items such as the
money, credit cards receipt and the papers records are stored.
iv.Customer poles display.
This is a section of the point of sale system which is a lighted display that is used to view the
total transactions, total of tendered amount and some advertisements messages displayed to the
customers.
v.Point of sale monitors.
This is flat panel LCD monitors or CRT monitors that are used by the sellers to display the
transactions to the sellers of the products.
vi.Point of sale touch screen.
This is a type of screen that provides display to the system users and it allows the easy
interactions with the system and helps in minimizing the space used.
vii.The keyboards.
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