Contribution Of Behavioral Approaches To Leadership

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CONTRIBUTION OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TOLEADERSHIP TO THE CONTEMPORARYAPPROACHES OF LEADERSHIP
Contribution Of Behavioral Approaches To Leadership To The Contemporary ApproachesOf LeadershipIntroduction:“Undoubtedly, Leadership is considered as a most essential element of management. Effectiveleadership plays an important role in accomplishing the organizational goals”(Weihrich &Cannice, 2010). “After the Trait Theory, the behavioral Theory of leadership has beendeveloped rapidly on the basis of behavioral concentrated studies. According to behavioraltheory of leadership, capabilities or skills of leaders are not born, instead that capabilities can bemade by training, and coaching. The basic principle of this theory is that the behaviors of leadershave an ability to be conditioned in such a way that particular feedback from particular stimulican be obtained. The behavioral approach to leadership has been contributed in a two distinctkind of leader’s behavior. One is task behavior that mainly concentrates upon accomplishinggoals of the organization and other is relationship behavior that focus on making goodrelationships with follower to motivate and encourage them”(Yukl, 1971).“The main aim of behavioral theory of leadership is to investigate the behavioral categories ofeffective leaders that defines their characteristics. For this purpose, two studies were conductedat two universities i.e. Ohio State University and University of Michigan that are linked withbehavioral approach of leadership”(Schriesheim & Bird, 1979).“The Contribution Of behavioral approaches to contemporary approaches of leadership is verysignificant. Contemporary approaches to leadership are linked with transformational, authenticand transactional leadership. The transformational leadership focus on the fact that leaders have acharismatic personality that is based on bringing changes in the form of innovation and creativityfor the well-being of the organization. Moreover, such type of leaders helps to enhance morale,inspire and motivate their followers to increase their work potential”(Johns & Moser, 1989). “AsTransformational leaders are more committed towards increasing morale of their employees andcommitment towards organization, they do so by following various techniques such as linkingemployees sense of identity with the organizational goals, inspire and motivate employees byserving him/herself as a role model. Acknowledging the followers by providing ownership of aassigned tasks, considering the follower’s strengths as well as weaknesses in order to enhancetheir productivity”(Emery & Barker, 2007). In contrast, “transactional leadership is based onpg.1
Contribution Of Behavioral Approaches To Leadership To The Contemporary ApproachesOf Leadershipreward and exchange system for accomplishing the organizational goals while there is noconcept of change”(Odumeru & Ogbonna, 2013). While authentic leadership are well awareabout their own values and morals and follow them openly as well as honestly.The purpose of this essay is to analyze the contribution of behavioral approaches such as taskbehavior as well as relationship behavior on the basis of Ohio State studies and Michigan studiesto the contemporary approaches of leadership such as transformational, transactional andauthentic leadership. Moreover. Comparison between these three contemporary approaches ofleadership is conducted in the literature and overall as well in order to assess their impact onemployee motivation and commitment to the organization.Literature Review:“At the initial years of 1950s, the research on leadership has shifted its concentration from Traittheories to behavioral theories of leadership. This research is caused by the fact that leader’sbehavior are very essential as compared to their personal, mental and emotional characteristics.The benefit of behavioral theory of leadership is that there can be proper distinction betweeneffective as well as ineffective leaders. The main idea is that effective leaders are not inherent,they can be made through learning, training and developing capabilities and skills”(Cherry,2012).“According to behavioral approach to leadership, anyone can be a leader by developingits skills and capabilities through training and supervision. Leaders are not inherent. Leader’sprinciples, values and interactive relations are the core of this approach. It mainly reflectsleader’s views, attitude while also concerned regarding his/her followers or organization. Thebehavior of leadership with respect to employee’s motivation and commitment towards job andorganization is also studied by behavioral approach to leadership”(Cherry, 2012).Twobehaviors are very important to study leadership behavior i.e. Task behavior and relationshipbehavior. The task behavior is committed to accomplish organizational goal whereas relationshipbehavior assist followers to make them feel comfortable within the organization. The mainreason behind this theory is to analyze how these two behaviors can be combined to assistemployees towards organizational objectives”(Hersey & Blanchard, 1969).pg.2
Contribution Of Behavioral Approaches To Leadership To The Contemporary ApproachesOf Leadership“The behavioral studies has been analyzed by various studies. In late 1940s, first and mostimportant studies were led by Ohio State University. While in University of Michigan, functionsof leadership were also studied at the same time. These two studies had provided a foundationfor hundreds of others studies about leadership behavior and still extensively used by most of theresearchers” (Schriesheim and Bird, 1979).Numerous researchers had discussed about the contemporary approaches of leadership. “A leaderinspiring or transforming employees for accomplishing exceptional organizational goals is calledtransformational leadership” (Robbins and Coulter, 2007). In this approach, “the growthrequirements of individual employees are being focused by transformational leader. The leaderchange the employee’s awareness about a problems and assist them to look at and analyze oldissues to resolve by motivating and inspiring them effectively for the sake of goalaccomplishment. Transformational leadership focus on bringing positive changes in theemployees as well as organization while taking care of follower’s interests as a whole(Warrilow, 2012). “They take care of follower’s self-esteem and enhance their skills as well ascapabilities so that maximum output can be given by them(Kovjanic et al., 2013). “Theresearch findings suggest that transformational leadership leads to enhance intrinsic motivationas well that ultimately enable followers to get more engaged and committed with enthusiasm andenjoyment” (Shin and Zhou, 2003). “It is also stated that follower’s motivation is positivelyaffected by transformational leadership” (Masi and Cooke, 2000). A main specification oftransformational leaders is to lead the change initiatives in a positive and effective way withinthe organization”(Korek et al., 2010).“Transactional leadership refers to rewards based exchange system among leaders andemployees under certain conditions”(Omar et al., 2009). “In contrast to transformationalleadership, employees short term requirements in terms of physical as well as safety is focusedwith economic exchange framework in transactional leadership. Thus, transactional leaders havea reactive behavior than proactive behavior which is showed by transformational leaders” (Basset al., 1996). “Transactional leaders don’t have concerned with the existing operations of theorganization, they all based on reward system as they promise money, status and position toemployees for the sake of success. Moreover, motivate employees by rewarding them. Whilepg.3
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