Criminology- Punishments and penology ESSAY

Added on - 03 Dec 2019

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Criminology-Punishments andpenology1
ESSAY: Critically discuss the differences andsimilarities between both Durkheim's and Marx'sperspectives of punishment.2
In perspective of criminology, punishment can be termed as the sense of a sanctionimposed by legislation of the culprit for criminal offense conducted by them. Punishment mustinvolve the unpleasantness to the victim for offense which is actually or supposed to beconducted (Ashworth and Roberts, 2013). Provision of punishment has been introduced bycriminal law to set an idle example to discourage the individual for getting engaged in such kindof acts. Sociology of the punishment provides better framework for the analysis of penalinstitutions in order to provide more realistic account instead of considering punishment as anapproach used for control of crime. For this aspect, punishment is considered as complicatedsocial institutions by the sociological perspectives. This institution is formed by the ensemble ofhistorical and social forces which have drastic impact on the population of offenders.Concept of punishment is supported by different theoretical approaches given bydifferent criminologists. In this aspect, main theories are given by Durkheim's and Marx'sperspectives of punishment (Brooks, 2012). Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx had differentperception regarding punishment due to difference in their viewpoint regarding the society.According to the perspective of Durkheim, punishment is morally affirming. Along with this, itis grounded by the mechanism of solidarity production. On the other hand, study of Karl Marxdepicts that punishment is economically conditioned state apparatus (Wright, Tompkins andMohammad, 2012). As per the approach of Marx, it plays a political and ideological role for theruling of dominating class.However, they both were concerned about the emergence of modern capitalism in thesociety while describing their perspective towards punishment (Easton and Piper, 2012). Inaccordance with their point of view, criminal activities are highly influenced by evolution inmarket society and modern system of division of labor. Both Émile Durkheim and Karl Marxhad developed their perspectives by considering the impact imposed by spread of marketrelations on reproduction ability of the society (Ashworth and Roberts, 2013). Due to this aspect,they both were engaged in the causes and implications of key development in the British societyregarding Industrial Revolution such as French Revolution.Approaches given by Durkheim and Marx have important similarity that thesesociologists do not consider punishment and criminal offense as aberrant. As per his point ofview, punishment serves positive function for the society (Jewkes and Johnston, (eds.) 2006).3
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