Critically calculate the following WAN Technologies:.
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Critically calculate the following WAN Technologies:Dial-upBroadbandFrame RelayAsymmetric Digital Subscriber LineIntegrated Services Digital NetworkDial-upDialup connectivity is done through the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), whichis composed of multiple telephone carriers from around the world. Although the bandwidthavailable on the PSTN is limited, it is more likely to be available in a given location thanother wired WAN solutions. A dialup connection can be used to access the Internet byconnecting a computer to a modem, connecting the modem to an analog phone line, anddialing in to a service provider. The service provider can then connect to the Internet.Modems in the United States and Canada are limited to 53.3Kbps download and 48.0 Kbpsupload.BroadbandBroadband refers to telecommunication that provides multiple channels of data over a singlecommunications medium, typically using same form of frequency or wave divisionmultiplexing.
Frame RelayFrame Relay is a very high speed and high performance in WAN Technology. Frame Relaythat operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model and facilitates informationtransfer from one user device to another over multiple switches and routers. Frame relaywhich is based on packet switching and that is designed for the data transmission betweenLAN and WAN. The user will have a private or leased line to a Frame Relay node.Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line1Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a technology for transmitting digitalinformation at a high bandwidth on existing phone lines to homes and business. ADSLinclude a channel for analog voice conversations, a channel for uploads, and a channel fordownloads. Download rates range from 1.5 to 9 Mbps and it upload bandwidth from 16 to640 Kbps. It is called asymmetrical because the download channel is faster than the uploadchannel. ADSL transmissions work at distances up to 18000 feet (5488 meters) over a singlecopper twisted pair.Integrated Services Digital NetworkIntegrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the basic network system of early WANprotocols, provides digitized phone connectivity and enables high speed transmission ofvoice, data, video and graphics across standard communication lines at the same time throughbearer channels. ISDN can be transmitted through packet switched networks, and other typesof networks besides telephone networks. ISDN service comprises two basic types, namelybasic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). While BRI contains a total 160kb/s for use of individual users, PRI offers a total of 1536 kb/s and is designed for users whorequire more capacity, such as large Enterprises.
Multiprotocol Layer Switching (MPLS)Multiprotocol layer switching is a network management protocol which is orginaly intendedto integrate layer 2 information about the network links (bandwidth, latency, ultilization) intolayer 3 (IP) elemets within a particular system. MPLS supports a secure and resilient privateVPN for inter-site connectivity.Interior Routing ProtocolsInterior gate way protocol is a routing protocol which is used in routing within anautonomous system (AS) number. IGP is a dynamic routing protocol which keep track ofroute used to move data from one end system to another inside a network or set of networksthat was administrated.Exterior Routing ProtocolsExterior Gateway protocol is used for transfer data and information between autonomoussystems. It is also known as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). The BGP is the only currentlyviable EGP and it is the official routing protocol used by the internet or gateway. Router thatuses EGP maintains the information about all the IP addresses assigned to the devices, bestpath to a particular network and cost metrics.Static RoutingA router with manually configured routing tables is known as the static routing. Static routesprovide additional route information to router. Static routing is not a routing protocol but it ismanuly configure and selection of a network route by managing network administarator.RoutersA router is the specialized networking device connected to two or more networks runningsoftware that allows the router to move data from one network to another. A router is able toboth send and receive packets of information from computer networks.Layer 2 AggregatorsLayer 2 switch is the kind of device that redirects data messages at layer 2 level, using thedestination Media Access Cotrol (MAC) address to determine where to direct the message.ServersServers is the computer designed to process requests and deliver data to another computer(client) over a local network or the Internet. Servers are typically configured with theadditional processors, memory and stroage capacity to handle the load of servicing clients.Cabling System