cross culture management.

Added on - Oct 2019

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CROSS CULTUREMANAGEMENT0
Table of ContentsPART 1:-.......................................................................................................................................................2CULTURE:-................................................................................................................................................2THEORIES OF CROSS- CULTURE:-.............................................................................................................2HOFSTEDE CULTURE THEORY:-................................................................................................................3TROMPENNARS CULTURE THEORY:-........................................................................................................4HALL CULTURE THEORY:-.............................................................................................................................5CROSS-CULTURE ISSUES:-........................................................................................................................5CROSS CULTURAL CHALLENGES:-.............................................................................................................6SKILLS NEEDED BY MANAGER TO LEAD CROSS CULTURE TEAMS:-..........................................................9PART 2:-.....................................................................................................................................................10STAFFING APPROACH:-..........................................................................................................................10ROLE OF GLOBAL HRM IN DECISION MAKING:-.....................................................................................13MANAGEMENT SKILLS NEEDED IN CROSS CULTURE ENVIRONMENT:-..................................................14HOW CROSS CULTURE THEORIES APPLIED TO OVERCOME CROSS CULTURE CHALLENGES:-................16IMPORTANCE OF OUR OWN CULTURE:-................................................................................................17REFERENCES:-............................................................................................................................................191
PART 1:-CULTURE:-Culture is the set of beliefs, traditions or the values. In other words, we can say that culture is thesum total of the learned behavior of a set of people that are generally considered the traditions ofthe people and which are transmitted from one generation to another generation. When thepeople of different background interacts with the people of another background, it is known asthe international culture or the cross culture. International culture is a typical issue for themanagement because the success of the organization depends on upon the smooth interaction ofemployees from separate cultures. Most of the organizations aware of the issues which arise dueto the different culture and takes various steps to resolve these issues. (Zhang, 2013)Organizations trained their employees in the cross culture so that they can easily manage all this.It is necessary for the organization to prepare in advance and should also take various initiativesto train their employees as per the need of different cultures. Internal culture communicationbecomes strategically important because of the growth of the global business or the technology.International culture communication requires the knowledge of other culture language, traditions,and beliefs. In this assignment, we will study about the various theories which are propoundedby different theorists and various cultural issues which act like as a barrier to the growth of anorganization.THEORIES OF CROSS- CULTURE:-2
HOFSTEDE CULTURE THEORY:-Professor Greet Hofstede propounded most important studies of how culture is influenced by thevalues. He propounded the six dimensions which help the organization in understanding thecross culture environment. These dimensions are following:-1.POWER DISTANCE INDEX: -This dimension of the Hofstede defines the level towhich the less powerful peoples of a particular society expect that all considered powersare distributed among them equally. The main important issues here is inequality of thepower among the people of the society, how the society handle these issues. (Hsu, 2013)In a hierarchical order, there is large degree of power distance among the peoples in thesocieties.2.INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM:- In the individualism dimension,people are only liable to their families and to themselves, and they don’t care aboutanyone in the society. While in collectivism individuals can expect their relatives or theirsocial group of different individuals.3.MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY: -The masculinity side of the Hofstededimensions represents an interest of the society in achievement, rewards, and success.Society at a big level is becoming more competitive nowadays. While in the other handfemininity stands for caring for the weak, cooperation, best quality of life or modesty.4.UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX: -This index shows the degree to which themembers of any society feels uncomfortable due to uncertainty or complexity. In thismembers deals with the concept that the future can never be known, uncertainty is alwaysavailable in the future.3
5.SHORT TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS LONG-TERM NORMATIVEORIENTATION:- it is necessary for the organizations to maintain their links with pastwhile faces the challenges of a present as well as future. (Hsu, 2013)Those with aculture which scores high adopt a pragmatic approach.6.INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT:- Indulgence represents a society whichallows their members free gratification related to human drives. Like: - enjoying life andmaking fun. Restraint represents a society which is based on strong norms.TROMPENNARS CULTURE THEORY:-This model is used to understand the members who belong to different culture backgrounds bypreventing occurrence of any misunderstanding between the members. This theory is mostimportant for those organizations which are engaged in the cross-culture business. This modelcannot measure preferences of members on an individual basis, but it is used on the generalguide basis. (Trompenaars, 2016)In the Trompennars theory there are seven dimensions whichare included in it:-Particularism versus UniversalismIndividualism versus CommunitarianismDiffuse versus SpecificEmotional versus NeutralAscription versus AchievementSynchronous Time versus Sequential TimeOuter Direction versus Internal Direction4
HALL PLUS CULTURE THEORY:-It was stated by the hall that the most important factor which plays an important role in the crossculture management is efficient culture communication. Here the management should focus thatthere will be an efficient or open communication system in an organization for workingefficiently. (Ezawa Zyun, 2013)Hall introduces two categories of culture which influence theoperations of an organization and its performance. These categories are following:-High context culture: - This category is regarded to have a high establish homogeneousviews regarding nationality, briefs, and values.Low context culture: - This type of culture notes that communication concept is identifiedmore informal or written records.CROSS-CULTURE ISSUES:-Today there is huge competition between the various organizations. It is important for theorganizations to involve in international business if it wants growth in the future. This makes thecross culture communication very crucial, and organization should take various steps to improveit. For effective cross culture communication, it is necessary for the organization to identifypotential factors of cross-culture communication and work upon them. There are followingculture issues which influence the organization in a great manner:-1.CULTURAL IDENTITY: -Culture is s set of beliefs and norms that a person comeswith them from their birthplace where they were as a child. All these beliefs and values5
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