Data Analysis and Design - Assignment

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Running head:DATA ANALYSIS AND DESIGNData analysis and designName of the student:Name of the university:Author Note
1DATA ANALYSIS AND DESIGNDatabases are a collection of information organized in such a way that it can be accessed,controlled and managed easily. In the following study, various ranges of data models are analyzed.Further, different approaches to database design are demonstrated here along with the use ofdatabase technologies.1. Discussing data models:Ranges of the database include the following.DatabaseStructureContribution towards past, currentand future database developmentsFlat fileIt stores data in plain text file.Every line of text file stores asingle record, where a field isseparated by the delimiters likecommas or tabsThis file system was used by originalMacintosh computer known as MFS orMacintosh File System creatively. It gotreplaced by more efficient HFS orHierarchical File System, by directorystructure (Yusof and Man 2018).HierarchicalIt was the earliest modellooking more like upside downtree. Files get related in parent-child manner, where parentswere able to connect with morethan a child (Jastrow and Preuss2015). However, every child hasbeen associated with a singleparentThey were popular in early databasedesigns during the age of mainframecomputers. Some Microsoft and IBMmodels are still in existence.NetworkIt is seen as a tree-like structuredesigned in an upside-downmanner. Here all memberinformation is branchedconnected to owners at thebottom of the tree (Deniša andUde 2015).Previously it was hard to maintain andimplement, though being much flexible.Programmers still need to understand thedata structure for future to make thismore efficient (Politis et al. 2016).Relationaldatabase modelEvery relation is depicted as atable here. Here, columns areattributes belonging to entitymodeled by the table (Batoryand Azanza 2017).It provided databases supplying simplemethod to look at data. Itsstraightforward techniques like ERmodelling are expected to represent aworld-view to create a relationaldatabase.
2DATA ANALYSIS AND DESIGNHowever, instances like relevant databases have no longer in use. This is based on cross-program usage of worldwide implicit calls of a subprogram (Elmasri and Navathe 2015). Thisindicates that they have never complied with current ideas.In case of the hierarchical model, data gets stored in a defined hierarchy. In network one, asystem is created displaying how data is related. This model never caught one and eventually gotreplaced by the relational model. The later one proved to be most flexible and efficient currently.Hierarchical model only implements 1:1 relations as per definition of a strict hierarchy. The othersperform one too many relationships.2. Approaches towards various database design:Top-down designThis approach begins, with a big scenario. This gets broken down intosmaller segments. The top-down approach starts with the big picture. Itbreaks down from there into smaller segments.Bottom-up designA bottom-up approach is piecing together of various systems rising morecomplicated system. In this way, it makes original systems and sub-systems of emerging system. It is opposite to top-down one (Gatterbauerand Suciu 2017). Here goals for a product are outlines. Assembly of aproduct is done according to system-by-system basis.ERD modelingThey help in clarifying information models for the relational databases. Ithelps business users to understand structures of databases at high-leveldevoid of any details. It must be assured that every entity appear once inevery diagram (Visual-paradigm.com, 2018).Proper nomenclature of attributes, relationships and entities of thediagram must be done. Every relationships taking place between entitiesmust be examined closely. It must be determined are they necessary andwhether any relationship is missing. Redundant relationships and must beeliminated. The relationship must not be connected to each other. Further,colors can be used to highlight parts of their diagram.DFD modelingIt maps out flow of information for any system or process. Definedsymbols are used here like arrows, circles, rectangles, a short text tablesshowing input, output, storage points routing between every destination(Zhang et al. 2017).It must be kept in mind that a vital aspect of DFD and primary benefits inrequirement process is that there has been no explicit notation of sequenceof processing in that notation.DFD recognizes the ongoing and what has been passed in and out forevery activity. However, it never specifies order in which things havebeen happening.Stating in other words, one can recognize the activities taking place at a
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