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(PDF) Death and dying in literature

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Added on  2021-04-16

(PDF) Death and dying in literature

   Added on 2021-04-16

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Running head: Death and DyingDeath and Dying-Palliative careName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
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1Death and dyingIntroduction:Palliative care can be understood as a specialized type of medical care that is used forpatients suffering from serious illnesses. The care focuses to provide relief from the stress aswell as the symptoms of the disease, and also allow improvement in the quality of life of thepatients as well as their families. The care is usually provided by a team of trained healthcarespecialists like doctors, nurses and other support groups, and can be applicable at any age orat any stage of the disease, and can be used along with any curative form of treatment( 2018. Palliative care can be provided in different types of setups likehospitals, outpatient clinics, facilities of long term care and even at home under medicalsupervision ( 2018).The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding palliative care thatidentifies the goals, principles and philosophies of care, discusses the different challenges inthe providence of palliative care to Australians, and also evaluates the medications that canbe used in the management of death, dying and bereavement.Goals, principles and philosophies of palliative care According to the World Health Organization, Palliative Care has the following goals:Relief from pain or other symptoms of the diseaseAffirming life and regarding death as a natural phenomenonDoes not attempt to either quicken or delay deathInvolve both spiritual and psychological aspects of care Providing a support framework for the patients which can assist the patient inleading an active life until death
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2Death and dyingProviding a support framework for the families to cope up with the illness ofthe patient, and in the event of their deathInvolving a team to address the needs of the patients and their families Improving quality of life and influencing the development of the disease( 2018).Bernacki and Block (2014) discussed the different care goals in the communication ofserious illness, identifying the best practices through a review of literature regardingconversations about serious illnesses care goal. The guidelines are discussed below:Comprehension of Prognosis: An understanding of the prognosis should be exploredin order to ascertain the awareness and acceptance of the patient regarding theircondition (Sullivan et al. 2005; Alexander et al. 2006; Sullivan et al. 2006;Fallowfield et al. 2002). Preference to information by the patient regarding their future regarding any decisionsand their involvement can help the professionals to provide the required information,with the patient being in control and also can instil confidence in the healthcareprofessional to proceed with treatment (Fallowfield et al. 2002)Disclosure of prognosis to the patient can be done to the degree desired by the patientwho can be useful for them to take decisions and also inform patients regarding whatto expect about their condition (Clayton et al. 2005; Steinhauser et al. 2000)Patient goals should be addressed in the care can help to address the despair andhopelessness cause by serious illness (Clayton et al. 2005)Addressing fears about any future suffering caused by the disease (Larson and Tobin2000)
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3Death and dyingAcceptable function and an acceptable limit of impairments caused by the disease, asdeemed by the patient should e considered in the decision making process (Clayton etal. 2005)Trade-offs between various forms of management of treatment and the effect onquality of life and time at home should be clarified (Fallowfield et al. 2002)Involvement of family as per patient’s request (Sulmasy et a. 2007)The study also identified the various principles of end of life communication as:Providing truth about progressNot harming the patient by discussing end of life issuesAccepting that anxiety is normal feelingAcknowledging that the patients can have other goals and priorities apart froma long lifeUnderstanding the goals and priorities of the patients can help to provide abetter care (Bernacki and Block 2014).Challenges of providing palliative careStudies by Fitch et al. (2015) discussed the nursing perspectives of palliative care.The study identifies nursing profession as integral in the promotion and providence of earlypalliative care, which needs to be aligned with the basic tenants of nursing, providing holisticcare for patients and their families. The study points out few challenges related to palliativecare education. Financial Constraint is a problem faced by healthcare systems globally, whichfurther affects the availability of the service or access to it. A change in the attitude of thepatients, who show an increased intention of being in control of their condition as long aspossible, necessitates structuring advance care practices. However, several nurses feeluncomfortable having the conversation regarding death, dying and end of life decisions of thepatients, like a desire for physician assisted suicide. It has been suggested that such situations
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